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Love Your Husband Even If…


Myself . 

By T. V. Antony Raj

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Love your husband even if he criticises your cooking; he purely wants you to excel in the culinary arts!

Love your husband even if he tells you to make tea or coffee at odd times; he wants to feel fresh to listen to your nonstop nagging.

Love your husband even if he steals a glance at other women; it is his way of checking that you are still the best.

Love your husband even if he makes himself a nuisance by snoring at night; it proves that he is more relaxed after being married to you.

Love your husband even if he forgets your birthday and the necklace you were yearning for so long; remember, he is saving the money for your future.

Love your husband always, because you do not have any other choice; remember the oath you both took during your marriage ceremony, “to love and cherish” each other forever.

Love your husband always, because, Exodus 20:13 admonishes: “Thou shalt not kill”; anyway, even if you are not religious, murder is a still a legal offence.

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History of Mother’s Day – Part 2


Myself 

By T. V. Antony Raj

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Mother’s Day in 1908

In Webster, Taylor County, West Virginia, Ann Maria Reeves Jarvis (1832 – 1905), a social activist, led a women’s group that celebrated an adaptation of Julia Ward Howe’s holiday. She and her daughter Anna Marie Jarvis (1864 – 1948), are now recognized as the founders of the Mother’s Day holiday in the United States.

Ann-Maria-Reeves-Jarvis
Ann Maria Reeves Jarvis

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Ann Maria Reeves Jarvis was born in Culpeper, Virginia, on September 30, 1832, to Rev.  Josiah Washington Reeves and his wife, Nancy Kemper Reeves. The family moved to Barbour County in present-day West Virginia when the Rev. Reeves got transferred to a Methodist church in Philippi. In 1850, Ann married Granville E. Jarvis, the son of a Philippi Baptist minister. Two years later, Granville and Ann Jarvis moved to nearby Webster in Taylor County.

In the 1850s, Ann Maria Reeves Jarvis lost eight of her 11 children before they reached the age of seven due to poor health conditions in the area. With the help of her brother, Dr James E. Reeves, she organized “Mother’s Friendship Clubs” in Webster, Grafton, Fetterman, Pruntytown, and Philippi, to improve health and sanitary conditions.

Thousands of women learned nursing and proper sanitation. Among other services, the clubs raised money for medicine, hired women to work for families in which the mothers suffered from tuberculosis, and inspected bottled milk and food. In 1860, local doctors helped to form Mother’s Friendship Club in other towns.

During the American Civil War, this noble woman urged the Mother’s Friendship Clubs to declare their neutrality and give relief to both Union and Confederate soldiers. The Club members nursed and cared for soldiers on both sides of the conflict.

Following the end of the war, she called on her club members to help mend the wounds of the war by reuniting the Union and Confederate families who fought on opposing sides by holding a “Mother’s Friendship Day.”

The Andrews Methodist Church built at Grafton, West Virginia and dedicated in 1873 was built under her husband’s leadership. Ann Maria Jarvis’ life revolved around the church. She taught Sunday School at the church for more than 20 years. After her husband’s death in 1902, Ann moved to Philadelphia to live with her son Claude and daughters Anna and Lillian.

Ann Maria Reeves Jarvis died on May 9, 1905, in Bala Cynwyd, in southeastern Pennsylvania, bordering the western edge of Philadelphia.

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Anna Marie Jarvis
Anna Marie Jarvis

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After Ann Maria Reeves Reeves’ death, her daughter Anna Marie Jarvis, began a campaign to make “Mother’s Day” a recognized holiday in the United States to honour her mother’s wish that there be a day set aside to honour all mothers.

In 1908, Anna Marie petitioned the superintendent of the church where her mother had spent over 20 years teaching Sunday School to hold a memorial service to honour her mother who died three years before. Her request was accepted, and on May 10, 1908, the first official Mother’s Day celebration took place at Andrew’s Methodist Church in Grafton, West Virginia, and at a church in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The event in Grafton drew a congregation of 407. Anna Jarvis had arranged for her mother’s favourite flower – white carnations. Two carnations were given to every mother in attendance.

At present times, people use white carnations to pay tribute to deceased mothers, and pink or red carnations to honour living mothers.

In 1912 West Virginia was the first state to officially recognize Mother’s Day. 

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President Woodrow Wilson
President Woodrow Wilson

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On May 8, 1914, President Woodrow Wilson, a friend of Anna Marie Jarvis, signed a Congressional Resolution setting the second Sunday in May as a national holiday to celebrate Mother’s Day.

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Portrait

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Soon, other countries too adopted Mother’s Day of Anna Marie Jarvis.

However, by the 1920s, Anna Marie Jarvis felt disappointed with the commercialization of Mother’s Day.

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← Previous:  History of Mother’s Day – Part 1

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History of Mother’s Day – Part 1


Myself 

By T. V. Antony Raj

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The tradition of honouring Motherhood has its roots in antiquity.

Osiris was the lord of the dead in the ancient...
Osiris

According to the primaeval Egyptian mythology, divine Osiris, the eldest son of the Earth god Geb and the sky goddess Nut was the god of fertility, the afterlife, the underworld and the dead.

Osiris was a wise king who brought civilization. His siblings were Horus the Elder, Seth, Isis, and Nephthys. His younger brother Seth was the god of the desert, storms, darkness, and chaos. He was hostile and outright evil. Though they were brothers their diametric personalities made them adversaries.

Osiris was happily married to his sister, Isis while Seth married his other sister Nephthys.

Though Osiris and Seth were brothers, their diametric personalities made them adversaries.

Seth, the envious brother slew Osiris, dismembered him into 13 pieces and scattered the remains all over Egypt. He usurped the throne of his dead brother.

Isis
Isis

Isis collected the dismembered body of her brother-husband Osiris, reassembled the pieces. As the archetypal mummy, Osiris reigned over the after-world as a king among deserving spirits of the dead.

Isis used the embalmed corpse of Osiris to impregnate herself to conceive posthumously. She gave birth to Horus. She then hid her baby son amidst reeds lest Seth slaughtered him too. Horus grew up as a natural enemy of Seth, defeated him and became the first ruler of a unified Egypt. Isis thus earned her stature as the “Mother of the Pharaohs.

In ancient Egypt and Ethiopia, Isis was one of the four most widely venerated deities. The ancient Egyptians held an annual festival to honour the goddess Isis as the ideal mother and wife.

The worship of Isis spread throughout the Greco-Roman world as the patroness of nature and magic; friend of slaves, sinners, artisans, and the poor. The rich aristocrats, rulers and maidens prayed to the goddess who was also known as the goddess of children, and protector of the dead.

Despite being a foreign deity, the Romans venerated Isis and reserved a place for her in their temples. The Romans commemorated an important battle with a festival in her name that lasted for three days with female dancers, musicians and singers marking the beginning of winter.

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Black Madonna

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Societies around the world celebrated symbols of motherhood as mythological goddesses and not real human mothers except the Christian Church. The Mother and Son imagery of Isis and Horus, where Isis cradles and suckles her son, and that of the Virgin Mary and Infant Jesus is astonishingly similar.

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Celebrations in England and Europe

By the 16th century, due to the spread of Christianity, people in England and Europe moved away from the ancient roman religious and cultural traditions. Hilaria, the ancient Roman religious festival celebrated on the vernal equinox to honour Cybele gave way to Laetare Sunday – the fourth Sunday of Lent in the Christian liturgical calendar (the 40 days of fasting preceding Easter Sunday), once known as “the Sunday of the Five Loaves.” Christians in England used this Sunday, to honour the Mother of Christ and decorated the church in which they were baptized, which they knew as their “Mother Church” with flowers and offerings.

In the 17th century, a clerical decree in England referred to the Laetare Sunday as “Mothering Day.” The decree broadened the celebration, from one focused on the “Mother of Christ” and the “Mother Church,” to include real mothers. It became a compassionate holiday toward the working classes of England. During this Lenten Sunday, the masters allowed their servants and trade workers to travel back to their towns of origin to visit their families. Mothering Day also provided a reprieve from the fasting and penance of Lent. Across England family members, living far away came home to visit and enjoy a family feast. The children presented cakes and flowers to their mothers.

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Celebrations in America

The first English settlers, the Pilgrims, who came to America discontinued the traditional Mothering Day. They fled from England to practice a more conservative Christianity without being persecuted. In the new land, they lived under harsh conditions and worked long hours to survive. Due to their devotion to God, they ignored secular holidays. For them, even holidays such as Christmas and Easter were sombre occasions that took place in a Church stripped of all extraneous ornamentation.

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Mother’s Day Proclamation of 1870

In 1870, Julia Ward Howe conceptualized the first North American Mother’s Day with her “Mother’s Day Proclamation.”

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Julia Ward Howe
Julia Ward Howe

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Julia Ward (May 27, 1819 — October 17, 1910) born in New York City was a prominent American abolitionist, social activist, and poet. She wrote “The Battle Hymn of the Republic” after she and her husband, Samuel Gridley Howe, visited Washington, D. C., and met President Abraham Lincoln at the White House in November 1861.

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American Civil War soldiers

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Twelve years later, distraught by the death and carnage of the Civil War, she called on mothers to protest what she saw as “the futility of their sons killing the sons of other mothers.” She wrote the following “Mother’s Day Proclamation” and called for an international Mother’s Day to celebrate peace and motherhood:

Arise, then, women of this day!

Arise, all women who have hearts, Whether our baptism be of water or of tears!

Say firmly: “We will not have great questions decided by irrelevant agencies, Our husbands will not come to us, reeking with carnage, for caresses and applause. Our sons shall not be taken from us to unlearn All that we have been able to teach them of charity, mercy and patience. We, the women of one country, will be too tender of those of another country To allow our sons to be trained to injure theirs.”

From the bosom of the devastated Earth, a voice goes up with our own. It says: “Disarm! Disarm! The sword of murder is not the balance of justice.” Blood does not wipe out dishonour, nor violence indicates possession. As men have often forsaken the plough and the anvil at the summons of war, Let women now leave all that may be left of home for a great and earnest day of counsel.

Let them meet first, as women, to bewail and commemorate the dead. Let them solemnly take counsel with each other as to the means Whereby the great human family can live in peace, Each bearing after his own time the sacred impress, not of Caesar, But of God.

In the name of womanhood and humanity, I earnestly ask That a general congress of women without limit of nationality May be appointed and held at someplace deemed most convenient And at the earliest period consistent with its objects, To promote the alliance of the different nationalities, The amicable settlement of international questions,

The great and general interests of peace.

Julia Ward Howe even proposed converting July 4th into Mother’s Day, to dedicate the nation’s anniversary to peace, but June 2nd was designated for the celebration.

In 1873, women’s groups in 18 North American cities observed this new Mother’s Day. Initially, Julia funded many of these celebrations. Most of them died out when she stopped funding. Boston city, however, continued celebrating Julia Ward Howe’s Mother’s Day for the next ten years.

Despite the failure of her Mother’s Day, Julia Ward had nevertheless planted the seed that blossomed into the modern Mother’s Day.

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Next: → History of Mother’s Day – Part 2

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Cricket: Schedule of Vivo IPL 2017 (IPL 10) T20 Cricket Tournament


Myself

By T. V. Antony Raj

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On February 15, 2017, BCCI announced the schedule of Vivo IPL 2017 (IPL 10) matches. A total of 60 matches will be played from April 5, 2017, to May 21, 2017, across 10 Indian cities.

Venues

The following have been chosen as venues for the Vivo IPL 2017 tournament:

1. Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium, Hyderabad.
2. Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium, Pune.
3. Saurashtra Cricket Association Stadium, Rajkot.
4. Holkar Cricket Stadium, Indore.
5. M. Chinnaswamy Stadium, Bengaluru.
6. Wankhede Stadium, Mumbai.
7. Eden Gardens, Kolkata.
8. Feroz Shah Kotla, Delhi.

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Schedule of Vivo Indian Premier League  2017 (IPL 10)
Fixtures in  IST Time
April 5, 2017, to 
May 21, 2017

Date Time Fixture Venue
Wednesday
5 April
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8 pm

Match #1

SRH vs RCB
SRH vs RCB 220x100

Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium, Hyderabad
Thursday
6 April
.
8 pm

Match #2

RPS vs MIRPS vs MI 220x60

Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium,
Pune
Friday
7 April
.
8 pm Match #3

GL vs KKR
GL vs KKR 200x100

Saurashtra Cricket Association Stadium,
Rajkot
Saturday
8 April
.
........
4 pm

Match #4

RPS vs  KXIP
RPS vs KXIP 220x100

Holkar Cricket Stadium,
Indore
8 pm Match #5

RCB vs DD
RCB vs DD 220x100

M. Chinnaswamy Stadium,
Bengaluru
Sunday
9 April
.
4 pm Match #6

GL vs SRHGL vs SH 220x100

Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium, Hyderabad
8 pm

Match #7

 MI vs KKR
MI vs KKR 200x100

Wankhede Stadium,
Mumbai
Monday
10 April
.
8 pm Match #8

RCB vs KXIP
RCB vs KXIP 220x100

Holkar Cricket Stadium,
Indore
Tuesday
11 April
.
8 pm

Match #9

RPS vs DD
RPS vs DD 220x60

Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium,
Pune
Wednesday
12 April
.
8 pm Match #10

SRH vs MI
SRH vs MI 220x83

Wankhede Stadium,
Mumbai
Thursday
13 April
.
8 pm Match #11

KXIP vs KKR
KXIPvs KKR 220x100

Eden Gardens,
Kolkata
Friday
14 April
.
4 pm

Match #12

RCB vs MI
RCB vs MI 220x100

M. Chinnaswamy Stadium, Bengaluru
8 pm Match #13

GL vs RPS
GL vs RPS 220x100

Saurashtra Cricket Association Stadium,
Rajkot
Saturday
15 April
.
4 pm

Match #14

SRH vs KKR
SRH vs KKR 220x100

Eden Gardens,
Kolkata
8 pm Match #15

DD vs KXIP
DD vs KXIP200x100

Feroz Shah Kotla,
Delhi
Sunday
16 April
.
4 pm Match #16

GL vs MI
GL vs MI 220x100

Wankhede Stadium,
Mumbai
8 pm Match #17

RPS vs  RCB
RPS vs RCB 220x100

M. Chinnaswamy Stadium,
Bengaluru
Monday
17 April
.
4 pm Match #18

KKR vs DD
KKR vs DD 220x100

Feroz Shah Kotla,
Delhi
8 pm Match #19

KXIP vs SRH
KXIP vs SRH 220x100

Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium, Hyderabad
Tuesday
18 April
.
8 pm  Match #20

GL vs RCB
GL vs RCB 200x100

Saurashtra Cricket Association Stadium,
Rajkot
Wednesday
19 April
.
8 pm Match #21

DD vs SRH
DD vs SRH 200x100

Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium, Hyderabad
Thursday
20 April
.
8 pm Match #23

MI vs KXIP
MI vs KXIP 220x100

Holkar Cricket Stadium,
Indore
Friday
21 April
.
8 pm Match #24

GL vs KKR
GL vs KKR 200x100

Eden Gardens,
Kolkata
Saturday
22 April
.
4 pm Match #25

RPS vs SRH
RPS vs SRH 220x83
Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium,
Pune
8 pm Match #26

MI vs DD
MI vs DD 220x60

Wankhede Stadium,
Mumbai
Sunday
23 April
.
4 pm Match #28

GL vs KXIP
GL vs KXIP 200x100

Saurashtra Cricket Association Stadium,
Rajkot
8 pm Match #29

KKR vs RCB
KKR vs RCB 220x100

Eden Gardens,
Kolkata
Monday
24 April
.
8 pm Match #30

RPS vs MIRPS vs MI 220x60

Wankhede Stadium,
Mumbai
Tuesday
25 April.
8 pm

Match #31

SRH vs RCB
SRH vs RCB 220x100

M. Chinnaswamy Stadium,
Bengaluru
Wednesday
26 April
.
8 pm

Match #32

RPS vs KKR
RPS vs KKR 220x100

Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium,
Pune
Thursday
27 April
.
8 pm Match #33

GL vs RCB
GL vs RCB 200x100

M. Chinnaswamy Stadium,
Bengaluru
Friday
28 April
.
4 pm Match #34

KKR vs DD
KKR vs DD 220x100

Eden Gardens,
Kolkata
8 pm Match #35

KXIP vs SRH
KXIP vs SRH 220x100

Holkar Cricket Stadium,
Indore
Saturday
29 April
.
4 pm Match #35

RPS vs  RCB
RPS vs RCB 220x100

Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium,
Pune
8 pm Match #36

GL vs MI
GL vs MI 220x100

Saurashtra Cricket Association Stadium,
Rajkot
Sunday
30 April
.
4 pm Match #37

DD vs KXIP
DD vs KXIP200x100

Holkar Cricket Stadium,
Indore
8 pm Match #38

SRH vs KKR
SRH vs KKR 220x100

Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium, Hyderabad
Monday
1 May
.
4 pm Match #39

RCB vs MI
RCB vs MI 220x100

Wankhede Stadium,
Mumbai
8 pm Match #38

GL vs RPS
GL vs RPS 220x100

Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium,
Pune
Tuesday
2 May
.
8 pm Match #40

DD vs SRH
DD vs SRH 200x100

Feroz Shah Kotla,
Delhi
Wednesday
3 May
.
8 pm Match #41

RPS vs KKR
RPS vs KKR 220x100

Eden Gardens,
Kolkata
Thursday
4 May
.
8 pm Match #42

GL vs DD
GL vs DD 220x100

Feroz Shah Kotla,
Delhi
Friday
5 May
.
8 pm Match #43

RCB vs KXIP
RCB vs KXIP 220x100

M. Chinnaswamy Stadium,
Bengaluru
Saturday
6 May
.
4 pm Match #44

RPS vs SRH
RPS vs SRH 220x83

Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium, Hyderabad
8 pm Match #45

MI vs DD
MI vs DD 220x60

Feroz Shah Kotla,
Delhi
Sunday
7 May
.
4 pm Match #46

KKR vs RCB
KKR vs RCB 220x100

M. Chinnaswamy Stadium,
Bengaluru
8 pm Match #47

GL vs KXIPGL vs KXIP 200x100

Holkar Cricket Stadium,
Indore
Monday
8 May
.
.
8 pm Match #48

SRH vs MI
SRH vs MI 220x83

Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium, Hyderabad
Tuesday
9 May
.
8 pm Match #49

KXIP vs KKR
KXIPvs KKR 220x100

Holkar Cricket Stadium,
Indore
Wednesday
10 May
.
8 pm Match #50

GL vs DD
GL vs DD 220x100

Saurashtra Cricket Association Stadium,
Rajkot
Thursday
11 May
.
8 pm Match #51

MI vs KXIP
MI vs KXIP 220x100

Wankhede Stadium,
Mumbai
Friday
12 May
.
8 pm Match #52

RPS vs DD
RPS vs DD 220x60

Feroz Shah Kotla,
Delhi
Saturday
13 May
.
4 pm Match #53

GL vs SRHGL vs SH 220x100

Saurashtra Cricket Association Stadium,
Rajkot
8 pm Match #54

MI vs  KKR
MI vs KKR 200x100

Eden Gardens,
Kolkata
Sunday
14 May
.
4 pm Match #55

RPS vs  KXIP
RPS vs KXIP 220x100

Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium,
Pune
8 pm Match #56

RCB vs DD
RCB vs DD 220x100

Feroz Shah Kotla,
Delhi
Tuesday
16 May
.
8 pm

Match #57

Qualifier 1

TBD vs TBD

Wankhede Stadium,
Mumbai
Wednesday
17 May
.
8 pm Match #58

TBD vs TBD

Eliminator
M. Chinnaswamy Stadium,
Bengaluru
Friday
19 May
.
8 pm Match #59

TBD vs TBD

Qualifier 2
M. Chinnaswamy Stadium,
Bengaluru
Sunday
21 May

.

8 pm
Match #60

Final

Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium, Hyderabad

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Cricket: Vivo IPL 2017 (IPL 10) Cricket Tournament


Myself

By T. V. Antony Raj

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In this month of April as in years before, the Indian Premier League (IPL) is again set to enthral the cricket fans across the globe.

The Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) has announced the schedule for the 10th edition of the Indian Premier League (IPL) Twenty20 tournament.

For the second consecutive year, BCCI has confirmed Vivo as title sponsor of the 10th edition of Indian Premier League’s T20 event.

Like last year, this year too, the former IPL three times champions Chennai Super Kings and Rajasthan Royal will not participate in the tournament.

The Teams participating in
Vivo Indian Premier League  2017 (IPL 10)

Logo of Delhi Daredevils 115x115 Logo of Gujarat Lions 115x115 Logo of Kings XI Punjab 115x115 Logo of Kolkata Knight Riders 115x115
Logo of Mumbai Indians 115x115 Logo of Rising Pune Supergiants 115x115 Logo of Royal Challengers Bangalore 115x115 Logo of Sunrisers Hyderabad 115x115

The eight teams participating in IPL 2017 are:

1 – Delhi Daredevils
2 – Gujarat Lions
3 – Kings XI Punjab
4 – Kolkata Knight Riders
5 – Mumbai Indians
6 – Rising Pune Supergiants
7 – Royal Challengers Bangalore
8 – Sunrisers Hyderabad

The Captains of the teams participating in
Vivo Indian Premier League  2017 (IPL 10)

On February 19, 2017, Mahendra Singh Dhoni was removed as captain of IPL franchise Rising Pune Supergiants and replaced by Australian Steve Smith.

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The Captains of IPL 2017 teams

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Captains of the IPL 2017 teams. Left to Right:

  1. Delhi Daredevils: Zaheer Khan (India)
  2. Gujarat Lions: Suresh Raina (India)
  3. Kings XI Punjab: David Miller (South Africa)
  4. Kolkata Knight Riders: Gautam Gambhir (India)
  5. Rising Pune Supergiants: Steve Smith (Australia)
  6. Mumbai Indians: Rohit Sharma (India)
  7. Royal Challengers Bangalore: Virat Kohli (India)
  8. Sunrisers Hyderabad: David Warner (Australia)

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 Broadcasters and Digital Streaming Platforms for IPL 2017

The Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) has announced the list of broadcasters and digital streaming platforms around the world. Several broadcasting networks and television channels will bring live coverage of Vivo IPL 2017 across the globe.

In India, Sony Pictures Network (SPN) has bagged the global rights to broadcast all the IPL  matches live on Sony SIX, Sony SIX HD, Sony Max, Sony Max HD for India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, Maldives & their respective territories, Commonwealth & possessions.

Broadcasting Rights
Vivo Indian Premier League 2017 (IPL 10)

Country/Region Broadcaster
India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, Maldives & their respective territories, Commonwealth & possessions Sony Pictures Network (SPN) – Sony SIX, Sony SIX HD, Sony Max, Sony Max HD, Hotstar
Indian subcontinent Cricketgateway.com
Afghanistan Lemar TV & Cricketgateway.com
Australia Cricketgateway.com
Bangladesh Bong BD and Cricketgateway.com
Caribbean Sportsmax and Flow TV
Canada Cricketgateway.com & Ethnic channel group
European territory Talk Radio
Hong Kong Now TV & Cricketgateway.com
Malaysia Astro  & Cricketgateway.com
(MENA Counties) – Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE and Yemen only  OSN Rights
New Zealand Sky NZ
SEA Cricketgateway.com
Singapore Singtel, Starhub, Eleven sports (OTT) and Cricketgateway.com
South Africa & Sub-Saharan Africa  Sport SuperSport
South America Cricketgateway.com
United Kingdom Republic of Ireland, Isle of Man & Channel Island & the European territories & possessions only Sky Sports
United States  & its territories & possessions ESPN and Willow TV

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Analemma, the Slender Figure Eight in the Sky


Myself 

By T. V. Antony Raj

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Definition of Analemma by Merriam-Webster: “A plot or graph of the position of the sun in the sky at a certain time of day (such as noon) at one locale measured throughout the year that has the shape of a figure 8; also : a scale (as on a globe or sundial) based on such a plot that shows the sun’s position for each day of the year or that allows local mean time to be determined.

Our Earth orbits around the Sun on an elliptical path. It also revolves around the Sun on a slant with an axial tilt of about 23.4 degrees. This leads to some interesting observational effects. One of these is the analemma, the apparent path traced by the Sun in the sky when observed at the same time of day over the course of a year.

Due to the Earth’s orbital eccentricity and its axial tilt, our Sun does not appear in the same position in the sky at the same time every day throughout the year. These two factors combine to generate the slender figure-eight, called analemma ( Greek “support”) curve.

So, the astronomers use this analemma diagram that shows the deviation of the Sun from its mean motion in the sky, as viewed from a fixed location on the Earth.

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Analemma on a globe (Source: analemma.com)

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The analemma diagram with the Sun’s path resembling a lopsided figure eight can often be found printed on globes of the Earth, usually somewhere over the Pacific Ocean where there is lots of room to print it.

The north–south component of the analemma is the Sun’s declination, and the east–west component is the equation of time. Most often, the diagrams of analemmas carry marks that show the position of the Sun at various closely spaced dates throughout the year. Analemmas with date marks are used for various practical purposes. Without date marks, they are of little use, except as decoration.

Earlier, prior to the 18th century, the term “analemma” referred to any tool or method used in the construction of sundials. Now, the term “analemma” is used in conjunction with sundials to convert between apparent and mean solar time.

Analemmas are photographed by keeping a camera at a fixed location and orientation and taking multiple exposures throughout the year, always at the same clock-time.

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Analemma posted by Giuseppe Donatiello

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The above image is a photo of an analemma posted by Giuseppe Donatiello.

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Analemma photo taken by Jack Fishburn in 1998–99.

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The above is an afternoon analemma photo taken in 1998–99 by Jack Fishburn in Murray Hill, New Jersey, USA. The Bell Laboratories building is in the foreground.

Although the term “analemma” is used to refer to the Earth’s solar analemma, it can be applied to other celestial bodies as well.

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Origins of April Fool’s Day


Myself  

By T. V. Antony Raj

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The joker symbolizes the practical jokes associated with April Fools’ Day. (PhotoObjects.net/Jupiterimages)

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One of the most light-hearted days of the year is April Fools’ Day, sometimes called All Fools’ Day, celebrated every year on April 1.

On April Fools’ Day, people indulge in playing harmless practical jokes, for example, telling friends that their shoelaces are untied or sending them on so-called fools’ errands, and also spreading hoaxes. Both the jokes and their victims are labelled “April fools”. So, people indulging in playing April Fool jokes expose their prank by shouting “April Fool!“.

On this day some newspapers, magazines and other published media report fake stories, which are usually explained on the following day or printed below the news section in small letters like those found in some agreements.

Although April Fools’ Day or All Fools’ Day, has been celebrated by different cultures for several centuries no country has yet declared the day as a public holiday.

The exact origins of All Fools’ Day still remain a mystery.

The Hilaria

Some forerunners of April Fools’ Day, the custom of setting aside a day for the playing of harmless pranks upon one’s neighbours, include the Roman festival of Hilaria.

The Hilaria (Latin “the cheerful ones“) were ancient Roman religious festivals celebrated on the March equinox to honour Cybele.

The term ” Hilaria” seems to have originally been a name which was given to any day or season of rejoicing, celebrated in Rome at the end of March and involved people dressing up in disguises. According to Maximus the Confessor (c. 580 – August 13, 662), a Christian monk, theologian, and scholar, the Hilaria were, either private or public. If private, it is the day in which a person gets married, or a day when a son was born. If public, those days of public rejoicings decided by a new emperor which were devoted to general rejoicings and public sacrifices, and no one was allowed.

Some speculate that April Fools’ Day was tied to the vernal equinox, or the first day of spring in the Northern Hemisphere, when Mother Nature fooled people with changing, unpredictable weather.

Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales

The first recorded association between April 1 and foolishness appeared around 1392, in Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales. In The Prologue to the “Nun’s Priest’s Tale“, Chaucer tells the story of the vain cock Chauntecler who falls for the tricks of a fox. The narrator describes the tale as occurring:

When that the monthe in which the world bigan
That highte  March, whan God first maked man,
Was complet, and passed were also
Syn March bigan thritty dayes  and two

Unfortunately, the reference “Syn March bigan thritty dayes  and two” is ambiguous and worthless as historical evidence.

Readers apparently misunderstood this line to mean “32 March”, meaning April 1. Modern scholars believe that there is a copying error in the extant manuscripts and that Chaucer actually wrote, Syn March was gon. Thus the passage originally meant 32 days after March, namely, May 2nd, the anniversary of the engagement of King Richard II of England to Anne of Bohemia, which took place in 1381.

Whatever Chaucer may have meant to convey, we can not conclude, based on these few lines, that he was aware of a custom of playing pranks on April 1st.

Poisson d’vril

Poisson d’avril

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In 1508, in a poem titled “Le livre de la deablerie” written by Eloy d’Amerval, a French choirmaster and composer might have a possible reference to April Fool’s Day. According to Wikipedia, it consists of “a dialogue between Satan and Lucifer, in which their nefarious plotting of future evil deeds is interrupted periodically by the author, who among other accounts of earthly and divine virtue, records useful information on contemporary musical practice.”

Though the poem would only be of interest to historians of music, it includes the line, “maquereau infâme de maintt homme et de mainte  femme, poisson d’vril.

The phrase “poisson d’vril” (April Fish) is the French term for an April Fool, a possible reference to the holiday when people were made fools for having paper fish placed on their backs to symbolize a gullible person or a young, easily caught fish.  However, it is unclear whether d’Amerval’s use of the term referred to April 1st specifically. He might have intended the phrase simply to mean a foolish person.

Eduard de Dene’s comical poem (1561)

In 1561, Flemish poet Eduard de Dene published a comical poem titled “Refereyn vp verzendekens dach / Twelck den eersten April te zyne plach” meaning (roughly) “Refrain on errand-day / which is the first of April.” In this poem, a nobleman who hatches a plan to send his servant on absurd errands on April 1st, supposedly to help prepare for a wedding feast. In the closing line of each stanza, the servant says, “I am afraid… that you are trying to make me run a fool’s errand.

This is a fairly clear reference to a custom of playing practical jokes on April 1st. So, we can infer that April Fool’s Day dates back at least to the sixteenth century.

Because of this reference to poet Eduard de Dene and other vague French references, historians believe that April Fool’s Day must have originated in continental northern Europe and then spread to Britain.

The changeover from Julian Calendar to Gregorian Calendar

The Romans used a complicated lunar calendar, based on the phases of the moon. A group of people decided the addition and removal of days to keep this calendar in unison with the astronomical seasons, marked by equinoxes and solstices.

Julius Caesar consulted an Alexandrian astronomer named Sosigenes and in 45 BCE, created a more regulated civil solar calendar, based on the Earth’s revolution around the Sun. In this Julian calendar, a common year had 365 days divided into 12 months with every fourth a leap year with a leap day added to the month of February.

Today, the Gregorian calendar also known as the Western or Christian Calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. In 1582, as called for by the Council of Trent in 1563, some European Catholic countries such as France, Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain introduced the Gregorian calendar. However, many countries non-Catholic continued to use the Julian Calendar. Turkey was the last country to changeover officially to the Gregorian calendar on January 1, 1927, So, it took almost 300 years for all the countries to switch over to the Gregorian calendar from the Julian Calendar.

In the Middle Ages, most European towns celebrated New Year’s Day on March 25. In some areas of France, New Year’s Day was a week-long holiday ending on April 1. The use of January 1 as New Year’s Day was common in France by the mid-16th century, and this date was adopted officially in 1564 by the Edict of Roussillon.

So, according to some historians, the April Fools’ Day dates back to 1582 when people who were slow to get the news of the changeover to the Gregorian calendar from the Julian Calendar, or failed to understand the new calendar. So, those who celebrated the New Year’s Day on some other dates other January 1, became victims of the butt of jokes and hoaxes of those who celebrated New Year’s Day on January 1.

Escape of Duke of Lorraine and his wife on April 1, 1632

According to a legend, the Duke of Lorraine and his wife were imprisoned at Nantes. On April 1, 1632, disguising themselves as peasants, they escaped from the prison by walking through the front gate.  A person who recognized them told the guards about it. The guards thought the warning was a “Poisson d’vril joke and scoffed at the person who reported it.

John Aubrey (1686)

In 1686, John Aubrey, an English antiquarian, collected notes about popular customs and superstitions, as research for a contemplated work to be titled, Remains of Gentilism and Judaism. His collected notes were published posthumously. He wrote, “Fooles holy day. We observe it on ye first of April. And so it is kept in Germany everywhere.”

So by the late seventeenth century, April Fool’s Day had definitely spread to Britain.

Washing the Lions prank (1968)

The tradition of keeping animals at the Tower of London began in the 13th century when Emperor Frederic II sent three leopards to King Henry III. In the following years, elephants, lions, and even a polar bear trained to catch fish in the Thames were added to the collection.

During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, a German visitor wrote, “all variety of creatures in the Tower including three lionesses, one lion of great size called Edward VI from his having been born in that reign; a tyger; a lynx; a wolf excessively old… there is besides a porcupine, and an eagle.”

At that time, a popular traditional prank to be played on April Fool’s Day was sending gullible victims to the Tower of London to see the “washing of the lions” (a non-existent ceremony).

On April 2, 1698, a British newspaper Dawks’s News-Letter reported: “Yesterday being the first of April, several persons were sent to the Tower Ditch to see the Lions washed.”

Examples of this “washing of the lions” prank occurred as late as the mid-nineteenth century. For more about the history of this prank, see the article: Washing the Lions.

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Washing The Lions (Source: Hoaxes.org)

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The above is an image of a card printed by the late Albert Smith and distributed among his friends. It’s hard to say whether any of these cards were sold as he did not authorise the transaction nor whether any person tried to use these cards at the non-existent “White Gate.”

By the eighteenth century, one of the most popular outing for visitors to London was to visit the Tower of London to see the menagerie. However, the population of the animals declined during the early nineteenth century. In 1834, the few remaining animals were transferred to the London Zoo opened to the public in 1828 in an area of Regent’s Park.

In the 18th century, April Fools’ Day spread throughout Britain. In 1708, a correspondent wrote to the British Apollo magazine asking, “Whence proceeds the custom of making April Fools?

In Scotland, it turned into a traditional two-day event that began with “hunting the gowk,” in which people were sent on phoney errands. Gowk is a word that denotes a  cuckoo bird, a symbol for a fool.

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Tailie Day

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This was followed by Tailie Day, a prank played on people’s derrieres, such as pinning fake tails or “kick me” signs on them.

Nowadays, newspapers, radio and TV stations, and Web sites have participated in the April 1 tradition creating intricate April Fools’ Day hoaxes by reporting outrageous fictional claims to fool their audiences.

In 1957, BBC reported that Swiss farmers were experiencing a record spaghetti crop and showed footage of people harvesting noodles from trees. In fact, many viewers fell for this report.

In 1985, Sports Illustrated tricked many of its readers when it ran a cooked-up article about a rookie pitcher named Sidd Finch who could throw a fastball over 168 miles per hour.

In 1996, Taco Bell, the fast-food restaurant chain, duped people by announcing that it had agreed to purchase Philadelphia’s Liberty Bell and intended to rename it the Taco Liberty Bell.

In 1998, Burger King advertised a “Left-Handed Whopper,” and many clueless customers requested the fake sandwich.

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RELATED ARTICLES

Jesus the Exorcist, the Healer, …


Myself

By T. V. Antony Raj

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Jesus and Beelzebul – Luke 11:14-23

Jesus was driving out a demon [that was] mute, and when the demon had gone out, the mute man spoke and the crowds were amazed.

Some of them said, “By the power of Beelzebul, the prince of demons, he drives out demons.”

Others, to test him, asked him for a sign from heaven.

But he knew their thoughts and said to them, “Every kingdom divided against itself will be laid waste and house will fall against house.

And if Satan is divided against himself, how will his kingdom stand? For you say that it is by Beelzebul that I drive out demons.

If I, then, drive out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your own people drive them out?

Therefore they will be your judges.

But if it is by the finger of God that I drive out demons, then the Kingdom of God has come upon you.

When a strong man fully armed guards his palace, his possessions are safe. But when one stronger than he attacks and overcomes him, he takes away the armor on which he relied and distributes the spoils.

Whoever is not with me is against me, and whoever does not gather with me scatters.

The Jews of Jesus’ period believed that in addition to God and his material creation, there existed a world of spirits, some good and some evil, who interacted with human beings; and that the evil spirits harm human beings and also lead them astray into disobeying God and his commandments.

Banishing Satan and the allied spirits under his control from the world, and the destruction of his rule over human beings becomes part of Jewish Eschatology. In continuity with the eschatological prophecies of the prophets, there were two distinguished periods of human history. It asserts that the present period of history is under the control of Satan, or a synonymous eponym, but will end with the approach of the time of eschatological salvation.

In Jewish understanding, human beings are capable of having some limited control over Satan and his allied spirits and have the ability in certain instances to counteract or reverse their malevolent influence by having extensive knowledge about them and using the proper skills or rituals to expel and control them. Jesus, a Jew, accepts this idea and sees his own period in history as the period in which the Kingdom of God would replace the Kingdom of Satan.

Jesus was known not only as a healer but also to a certain extent as an exorcist. These two categories – healing and exorcism – overlap to some extent because possession by a demon can often manifest itself as physical ailments in such persons. In many instances, a person who has been exorcised is said to be healed.

In the Synoptic Gospels, we see a lot of instances of exorcism by Jesus. Here, I cite a few:

1. Luke 11:14-23 = Matthew 12:22-30: In Matthew and Luke, the Beelzebul controversy is precipitated by Jesus’ driving out a demon from a man.

2. Mark 1:21-28, Luke 4:31-37: At the synagogue in Capernaum, the evil spirit possessing a man recognizes Jesus and cries out, “What have you to do with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are—the Holy One of God!”  Jesus drives out the evil spirit saying “Quiet! Come out of him!.” Before departing with a loud cry, the unclean spirit shakes the man violently. The witnesses to this event are amazed that Jesus has authority over evil spirits.

3. Mark 5:1-20, Luke 8:26-39, and Matthew 8:28-34: Jesus heals a demoniac man (two men in Matthew) in the territory of Gadarenes (Gerasenes).

Jesus’ exorcism begins even before he actually meets the demonized. When Jesus does come face to face with the possessed man, the demon(s) within him is agitated and cries out in alarm “What have you to do with me, Jesus, son of the Most High God? I beg you, do not torment me!” (Mark 5:7, Luke 8:28). For he had ordered the unclean spirit to come out of the man. (It had taken hold of him many times, and he used to be bound with chains and shackles as a restraint, but he would break his bonds and be driven by the demon into deserted places.) (Luke 8:29)

The demon possessing the man is called “Legion,” because many demons had entered him. The demons plead with Jesus to allow them to enter into a herd of swine that was feeding there on the hillside. Jesus lets them, and the possessed herd of swine rush down the steep bank into the Sea of Galilee and are drowned.

4. Mark 9:14-29, Luke 9:37-43a and Matthew 17:14-20: An evil spirit possessing a boy causes him to be deaf and dumb and sometimes tries to harm him by throwing him into fire or water. Jesus exorcises the boy after his disciples tried unsuccessfully to do so.  Shouting and throwing the boy into convulsions, it came out. He became like a corpse, which caused many to say, “He is dead!” But Jesus took him by the hand, raised him, and he stood up. (Mark 9:26-27)

Then the disciples approached Jesus in private and said, “Why could we not drive it out?” He said to them, “Because of your little faith. Amen, I say to you, if you have faith the size of a mustard seed, you will say to this mountain, ‘Move from here to there,’ and it will move. Nothing will be impossible for you.” (Matthew 17:19-20)

5. Matt 9:32-34: Jesus heals a dumb demoniac; and when the demon was driven out the mute person spoke. The crowds were amazed and said, “Nothing like this has ever been seen in Israel.  But the Pharisees said, “He drives out demons by the prince of demons.”

6. Luke 13:10-17: In a synagogue, on a Sabbath day, Jesus heals a crippled woman who was there for eighteen years. She was bent over by the evil spirit and was completely incapable of standing erect.

7. Mark 7:24-30, Matthew 15:21-28: The daughter of a woman who was a Greek, a Syrophoenician by birth (a Canaanite in Matthew) is possessed by an unclean spirit. Jesus heals the girl, but reluctantly, and says “I was sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel” meaning that he has come to bring deliverance to the Jews, insofar as the benefits of the Kingdom of God belong to them – “It is not right to take the food of the children and throw it to the dogs.”

8. Mark 16:9 and Luke 8:2: Out of the women who had been cured of evil spirits and infirmities, Mary Magdalene is one out of whom Jesus cast seven demons.

9. Mark 3:20-22: Jesus himself is accused of being possessed. The scribes who had come from Jerusalem said, “He is possessed by Beelzebul,” and “By the prince of demons he drives out demons.”

The saying about the ‘plundering of the strong man’ comes in the context of Jesus’ self-defence against the accusation that he casts out demons by the power of Beelzebul.  There are two different versions of the same tradition, quite dissimilar to each other: Mark 3:27 = Matt 12:29; Luke 11:21-22.

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Matt 12:29
How can anyone enter a strong man’s house and steal his property, unless he first ties up the strong man? Then he can plunder his house.
Mark 3:27
But no one can enter a strong man’s house to plunder his property unless he first ties up the strong man. Then he can plunder his house.
Luke 11:21-22
When a strong man fully armed guards his palace, his possessions are safe. But when one stronger than he attacks and overcomes him, he takes away the armor on which he relied and distributes the spoils.

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The Gospel of Thomas has a shorter version of this saying: “Jesus said, ‘One cannot enter a strong person’s house and take it by force without tying his hands. Then one can loot his house’.” (35)

So, all these different versions boil down to this: In order to plunder the house of a strong man one must be stronger than he is; only then can one carry away his goods.

Here, Jesus is speaking allegorically: the strong man is Satan and the house is his kingdom or sphere of influence. Jesus is telling that an entity stronger than Satan has come and is in the process of plundering his kingdom, which is an ambagious reference to himself. The booty taken by the stronger man represents those who were demonized but whom Jesus freed from Satan’s influence.

To recap, by the power Jesus has over demons, the reign of Satan is in the process of being replaced by the Kingdom of God.

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Jim Reeves » Satan can’t hold me

When the trumpet has sounded and at judgement, we stand
And the Lord, up in heaven, takes you by the hand
If for things I’ve done wrong I am sent down below
Satan can’t hold me this much I know

Satan can’t hold me, nobody can
Angel or devil, spirit or man
Through the valleys of darkness, I’ll come to your side
Your love, my beacon, my love, my guide

I will climb over mountains, fly up in the blue
I’ll swim every river that keeps me from you
Till that wonderful day, we’re together again
Satan can’t hold me, true love must win

Satan can’t hold me, nobody can
Angel or devil, spirit or man
Through the valleys of darkness, I’ll come to your side
Your love, my beacon, my love, my guide

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Arrack, the Spirit of Sri Lanka!



By T. V. Antony Raj

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Marco Polo in his 13th-century travelogue, “Il Milione“, commented about Arrack, the wonderful spirit, documenting it as a legendary beverage forever, and the predecessor to nearly every new world spirit.

VSOA

Variations abound, but the purest, single-ingredient spirit remains exclusively handcrafted in the island nation of Sri Lanka, where the country’s oldest and most prestigious distilleries distill Premium, Old and Very Special Old Arrack (VSOA).

700 years of knowledge handed down from generations of master artisans, makes VSOA a spirit unique to the island. Premiere blends of handcrafted refined single and double-distilled spirits stored in Halmilla wood barrels are allowed to mellow for 2 years.

Mendis Ceylon Arrack

Have you tried DCSL VSOA, WHITE LION VSOA, Mendis Special, or IDL OLD ARRACK? If not, I would say you do not have any knowledge or respect for old age!

“One For Me, One For You…”


Myself 

By T. V. Antony Raj

two-bags-of-oranges

On the eve of All Souls Day, two boys ventured into one of the orange orchards in the village. They saw two bags of freshly plucked oranges lying unattended. Grabbing a bag each, they left the orchard unobserved. They then decided to go to a quiet place to share the lot equally.

While they jumped over the parapet wall of the village cemetery two oranges fell out of one of the bags but they did not bother to pick them at that time.

A few minutes later, the village drunkard Carolis Appuhamy, who looked after the churchyard and the cemetery was returning inebriated from the tavern. While passing the cemetery he heard a monotonous mumbling: “One for me, one for you, one for me, one for you, one for me, …

Frightened Carolis Appu ran as fast as he could to the church. When he saw Father Augustine he blurted “Anéy father, please come, come. I heard Satan and Saint Peduru sharing the dead at the cemetery.

Curiosity taking the upper hand, Fr Augustine followed Carolis Appu to the cemetery. The crouched near the parapet wall and heard the voice muttering, “One for me, one for you, one for me, one for you, one for me, …

Suddenly, the voice stopped counting and said: “FinishedWhat about those two outside the parapet wall?

Fr Augustine and Carolis Appu immediately took to flight. They ran towards the Church shouting madly in unison: “We are not dead, we are not dead…