Tag Archives: Tamil Language

India – She Has High Scores in Plus Two Exams but No Money to Realize Her Dream




Gayathri has 197/200 cut off marks for medicine, but poverty has forced her to work in agricultural fields as a daily wager.

S. Gayathri
S. Gayathri

S. Gayathri (17) of Chinnamaruthur in Pilikalpalayam panchayat, Paramathi Velur taluk, about 35 km from Namakkal town, has scored 1,129 (94 per cent) in the recent Plus Two exams. She aspires to become a doctor and she has 197/200 cut off for medicine. As she belongs to Scheduled Caste (Arunthathiyar) community, she has brighter chance to realise her dream.

But poverty has forced her to work in agricultural fields as a daily wager so that she can earn Rs. 100 a day to support her family.

When she came to know that she scored 199 in biology, 198 in chemistry, 197 in maths, 192 in physics, 179 in Tamil and 164 in English she hardly had time to celebrate as her father asked her to discontinue her studies as it would not be possible for him to support her higher education. Her mother, however, wanted the girl to pursue some degree course in a nearby government aided arts and science college.

Her parents K. Selvaraj (42) and S. Sumathi (35) have never been to school and are daily wage farm labourers. Gayathri is the eldest child and has two sisters and a brother.

The family always had trouble meeting their day to day needs as her father often fell sick and on many occasions Sumathi was the sole breadwinner of the family.

Becoming a doctor was Gayathri’s childhood dream. “I suffered from breathing difficulty and chest pain from the age of one and was badly affected till I was 13. I know the pain of living as a patient from a poor family and so I want to treat poor patients if I become a doctor. I want to specialise in gynaecology,” she adds.

She studied in the Aanangur Government High School and scored 470/500 in the Class X examination.

Her teacher Ranganathan took her to Malar Matriculation Higher Secondary School in Paramathi where she was enrolled for higher secondary. Her tuition fee was fully waived.

Teachers, who saw the girl’s interest in studies, pooled in money to pay the transportation fees.

“In 2012, the lowest cut off score for a candidate from the SC (A) community to get a medical seat in a government medical college was 188.25. With a much better cut off, Gayathri has a better chance. The school will extend support to her, but she would need more financial assistance to pursue her higher education,” M. Palaniappan , president of Malar school, said.

Persons interested in helping Gayathri can contact her father at +91 98436 87990.


Re-posted from THE HINDU


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Unicode Technical Note #21: Tamil Numbers


By T. V. Antony Raj

Recently, I found the Unicode Technical Notes that provide information on a variety of topics related to Unicode and Internationalization technologies. The website stresses that these technical notes are independent publications, not approved by any of the Unicode Technical Committees, nor are they part of the Unicode Standard or any other Unicode specification and publication and does not imply endorsement by the Unicode Consortium in any way. These documents are not subject to the Unicode Patent Policy nor updated regularly.

Being a Tamil, Unicode Technical Note (UTN) #21: Tamil Numbers by Michael Kaplan, fascinated and impressed me.

Originally, Tamils did not use zero, nor did they use positional digits. They have separate symbols for the numbers 10, 100 and 1000. Symbols similar to other Tamil letters, with some minor changes. For example, the number 3782 not written as ௩௭௮௨ as in modern usage but as ௩ ௲ ௭ ௱ ௮ ௰ ௨.

This would be read as they are written as Three Thousands, Seven Hundreds, Eight Tens, Two; and in Tamil as மூன்று-ஆயிரத்து-எழு-நூற்று-எண்-பத்து-இரண்டு.

௧ = 1
௨ = 2
௩ = 3
௪ = 4
௫ = 5
௬ = 6
௭ = 7
௮ = 8
௯ = 9
௰ = 10
௰௧ = 11
௰௨ = 12
௰௩ = 13
௰௪ = 14
௰௫ = 15
௰௬ = 16
௰௭ = 17
௰௮ = 18
௰௯ = 19
௨௰ = 20
௱ = 100
௨௱ = 200
௩௱ = 300
௱௫௰௬ = 156
௲ = 1000
௲௧ = 1001
௲௪௰ = 1040
௮௲ = 8000
௰௲ = 10,000
௭௰௲ = 70,000
௯௰௲ = 90,000
௱௲ = 100,000 (lakh)
௮௱௲ = 800,000
௰௱௲ = 1,000,000 (10 lakhs)
௯௰௱௲ = 9,000,000
௱௱௲ = 10,000,000 (crore)
௰௱௱௲ = 100,000,000 (10 crore)
௱௱௱௲ = 1,000,000,000 (100 crore)
௲௱௱௲ = 10,000,000,000 (thousand crore)
௰௲௱௱௲ = 100,000,000,000 (10 thousand crore)
௱௲௱௱௲ = 1,000,000,000,000 (lakh crore)
௱௱௲௱௱௲ = 100,000,000,000,000 (crore crore)


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Sri Lankan Tamils Are Better Off ….

By Shenali Waduge

When Tamils in Sri Lanka were not eating together, allowing others to educate themselves because of Tamil caste, it was the Social Disabilities Prevention Act 21 in 1957 that enabled low caste Tamils to gain education – this was opposed by all elite Tamils who even wrote to the British Government against this.Sinhala and Tamil are official languages in Sri Lanka and both are declared languages of administration(16th amendment – to communicate, publications, translations, records).

Sinhala and Tamil are the language of the Courts throughout Sri Lanka.In addition, Sri Lanka’s national flag depicts both Tamils and Muslims through the colors orange and green.

All public documents – marriage certificate, death certificate, immigration forms etc. are all in Sinhalese and Tamil, so too is currency and notes.

All public events are presented in all 3 languages [Sinhalese, Tamil, and English].

Tamils have no restrictions on owning property, starting business ventures, obtaining state loans, owning land – whereas Sinhalese and Non-Vellalas are denied from obtaining land in the North (thesavalami a law).

Tamils have access to all state services and public utilities – hospitals, schools, healthcare services, public transport (at no stage did Tamils suffer as the blacks did in the US and in South Africa).

Tamils have access to all forms of sports with Tamils even representing national teams.

All road signs, buses etc. are all in both languages.

While Tamils will not allow low caste Tamils to enter hotels or restaurants of high castes, there is no hotel, restaurant, shop that says “Tamils are not welcome”.

Those that accept false propaganda and lies may like to visit Sri Lanka to realize that Tamils in Sri Lanka are better off than Tamils in any other part of the world.

Can we then please know where Tamils are being discriminated against in Sri Lanka?

As for Tamil Nadu – close to 20% of its population are Dalits and 80% of this number live in villages where illiteracy is over 60%. 62% of these Dalits suffer from some type of abuse ranging from physical assault, sexual harassment, verbal abuse to even rape. This is how Tamils appear to be treating their own in India where the Indian Government is telling Sri Lanka to treat Tamils with “dignity and respect”.

— Excerpt from “Shouldn’t Tamil Eelaam Be In Tamil Nadu? – OpEd” By Shenali Waduge, October 18, 2012.

To read the full article click here —>“Shouldn’t Tamil Eelaam Be In Tamil Nadu? – OpEd” By Shenali Waduge 

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The Art of Storytelling by Enid Still

July, 2012

I arrived at the end of June in flurry of auto-rickshaws, an epic train journey and an all night Kattaikkuttu performance, just as the month of storytelling was about to begin at Kattaikkuttu Gurukulam. It began with the arrival of professional storyteller Craig Jenkins on the 5th of July on his forth pilgrimage to the school. The excitement and exhilaration of everyone at the school (not just the children) told me this was indeed a special visitor and this month would indeed be one to write about.

Craig Jenkins – professional storyteller

I had to admit to Craig that I never realised Storytelling was a profession and not only that but an intricate and important art form, which like dance, acting, writing or painting must come from the heart and with a passion for the meanings and truths behind what is being told or addressed.

There is a vast oral and written tradition of storytelling here in India and many Middle Eastern countries, a lot of which will now have been translated for the western world and so, will be familiar to many. For example, I’m sure most people will know of the Middle Eastern epic – One Thousand and One Nights (or Arabian Nights) famously popularised and americanised by Disney. Perhaps their knowledge of the roots of Aladin or Ali Baba The Forty Thieves is a little vague however. What Craig brings to Kattaikkuttu Gurukulam is by all means not a westernised version of the Mahabharata or the Ramayana, neither is it simply the beautiful oral tradition passed down to him through his much loved Guru Vayu Naidu; it is an exciting, enticing and educational experience through which he applies his successful mantra of taking old, traditional stories and bringing them into the contemporary. This allows students of all ages to deconstruct the stories they have heard their whole lives, look at them from a different angle, redesign their meanings and use them to examine contemporary issues such as gender and prejudice. This is complimented by learning new stories through which students can learn for themselves how to create, construct and perform these stories.

As I write this I realise how much I have already learnt about this art and I am excited to learn more. Our storytelling workshop ‘Mun Oru Kalattil,’ taking place at the end of this month will provide me with the perfect opportunity. It will be a truly educational and eye opening experience for everyone involved, whatever their profession or reason for attending.

However, learning about this art has made me wonder why we have lost the presence of this tradition in our own culture. Undoubtedly it is still there but I think its importance and meaning within society has been lost, especially in an educational sense. Perhaps I am wrong however and it is simply my own ignorance to the art which has denied me to see it in its full light and capacity back in my corner of the world. And with that thought, the will in me to learn more about storytelling and the stories which have been kept alive in India through this oral and written tradition, has grown all the stronger!


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Theru Koothu – The dying folk art of Tamilnadu, India – Karna Motcham


Myself By T.V. Antony Raj


This is a sequel to my article “Theru Koothu – The dying folk art of Tamilnadu, India” published on July 3, 2012.

The art of Theru Koothu is handed down from one generation to the next. The performers hail from poor down trodden families of the lower echelon of society. They know no other trade. Theru Koothu is now virtually a dying art – dying because of the popularity of cinema, dying for want of patronage.

In earlier times these artists were held in high esteem for their artistry and talent. They entertained the village folk on invitation by the respective village elders. But nowadays they are a forgotten lot and perform during temple festivals in villages of their own accord and live on hand-outs.

This Tamil short film “Karna Motcham” directed by S. Murali Manohar is a real life depiction of a day in the life of a rural Theru Koothu (Street Play) artist who comes to a school in Chennai City to dance for the children at a function to be held there.

The emotions of disappointment, pain and anguish of the artist are well brought out by the actors, the director and in the dialogues written by S. Ramakrishnan.

This film has won more than 60 awards including National award by Government of India, Best short film awarded by Tamilnadu Government , Best Director award at the Canadian International Tamil Film Festival.


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Theru Koothu – The dying folk art of Tamilnadu, India.


Myself . By T.V. Antony Raj


Not only species of animals are vanishing from the face of our earth, forms of folk art too. Today, in most regions of this world, many forms of folk art are no more a part of the ethnic tradition of the people.  The present generation is not even aware that those forms of folk art did exist. One such ethnic folk art indigenous to India is the Street Play. It is now virtually a dying art. It is dying because of the popularity of cinema. It is dying for want of patronage.

Photograph by Balaji Maheshwar

In Tamilnadu, we call this folk art “Theru Koothu” (Tamil: தெருக்கூத்து). It is a folk theatre performed in the open mostly during temple festivals in the villages of Tamilnadu.

The art of Theru Koothu is handed down from one generation to the next. The performers hail from poor down trodden families of the lower level of society. They know no other trade. They travel as a troupe that include the actors, dancers, musicians, make-up artists, stage-decorators, cooks and sometimes a few family members. They are always on the move travelling from one village to another.

In earlier times these artists were held in high esteem for their artistry and talent. They entertained the village folk on invitation by the village elders. But today they are a forgotten lot and perform during temple festivals in villages of their own accord and live on handouts.

The Koothu (Tamil: கூத்து) or performance is held in an area about 16 feet long and 14 feet wide called ‘sabai’ (Tamil: சபை) meaning assembly or court.

In those good old days when there was no technology such as microphones and loudspeakers, the artists trained to sing at a high pitch to reach the entire crowd. There were not much dialogues and the artists enacted whole plays via singing with the accompanying musicians seated in the background on stage. Now, most of the Theru Koothu troupes have their own sound equipment or rent them for their performances; even then, the actors still sing spilling their guts out.

The musical instruments used include Harmonium, Mirudangam, Mugaveena, Kanjara and Thaala vaadyam.

The dress of the artists are a complex lot – wide colorful skirts, sparkling shoulder plates and elaborate wide head-dress, and of course thick bright heavy makeup.

All actors are males – even female characters are performed by males except in few instances.

They enacted mostly mythological stories already familiar to the villagers.. The themes are usually drawn from Mahabharata. Some popular items on the Theru Koothu repertoires include Harichandiran (Story of King Harischandra who never told an untruth), Draupathy Vastraparanam (Disrobing of Draupathy, the wife of the Pandavas), Karna Motcham (Defeat of Karna, the half-brother of Pandavas), Praghalada Charithram (Story of Praghalda), Bagiratha Prayathanam (Bagiratha’s efforts to bring River Ganges to Earth), etc.

Nowadays, students and activists perform Theru Koothu based on themes that create social awareness.


 Koothu is performed mostly late in the evenings, after 8 pm. There are no entrance fees.  No chairs provided for the audience except for the dignitaries, if there be any present at the venue. The public are at liberty to stand, sit, recline or choose whatever stance or manner in which they wish to see the play.

All the photographs I have used to augment this article were taken by my friend Balaji Maheshwar, a talented photographer. Below are some photographs of the artists and the members of a troupe caught by Balaji in their relaxed moments …


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Why this kolaveri kolaveri kolaveri di?


Myself . By

 T.V. Antony Raj


If you have not listened to the Tamil song “வொய் திஸ் கொலவெறி டி” (Transliteration: “Why This Kolaveri Di“) meaning “Why this murderous rage, lass?” then you must be an extra-terrestrial.

Anirudh Ravichander

This song was featured in the Tamil film titled “3”, that was released on March 30, 2012. Music director Anirudh Ravichander composed the music in just 10 minutes and young actor Dhanush who sang this song wrote the lyrics, in about 20 minutes by fiddling and twiddling with Tanglish words.

The musical instruments used in this song are western saxophone, acoustic guitar, electronic keyboards, synthesizers, indigenous south Indian instruments such as nadaswaram, urumee, thavilvil, and north Indian shehnai. The singing is in the style of Tamil folk songs.

The song was officially released on November 16, 2011. It instantly became viralon social networking sites. The song was well received not only by Tamils but also by others who do not know Tamil. Why? Because of the catchy tune and lyrics containing Tanglish words.

The song “Kolaveri Di” became an  internet phenomenon. Within a week after the official release of the video, it received more than 3.5 million views on YouTube, and more than 1 million shares on Facebook. Up to November 30, 2011 it had more than 10.5 million views on YouTube. By the end of 2011, the number of YouTube views crossed 30 million.

The song’s universal theme of failure in love combined with unique yet nonsensical lyrics and captivating music has spawned hundreds of imitations and political parodies.

In the movie this song is sung by the hero in an inebriated state, after having been ditched by the heroine. Many lines in the song are just utter nonsense.


yo boys i am singing song
soup song
flop song
why this kolaveri kolaveri kolaveri di
why this kolaveri kolaveri kolaveri di
rhythm correct
why this kolaveri kolaveri kolaveri di
maintain this
why this kolaveri..di
distance la moon-u moon-u
moon-u color-u white-u
white background night-u nigth-u
night-u color-u black-u
why this kolaveri kolaveri kolaveri di
why this kolaveri kolaveri kolaveri di
white skin-u girl-u girl-u
girl-u heart-u black-u
eyes-u eyes-u meet-u meet-u
my future dark
why this kolaveri kolaveri kolaveri di
why this kolaveri kolaveri kolaveri di
maama notes eduthuko
apdiye kaila sax eduthuko
pa pa paan pa pa paan pa pa paa pa pa paan
sariya vaasi
super maama ready
ready 1 2 3 4
whaa wat a change over maama
ok maama now tune change-u
kaila glass
only english..
hand la glass
glass la scotch
eyes-u full-aa tear-u
empty life-u
girl-u come-u
life reverse gear-u
lovvu lovvu
oh my lovvu
you showed me bouv-u
cow-u cow-u holi cow-u
i want u hear now-u
god i m dying now-u
she is happy how-u

this song for soup boys-u
we dont have choice-u
why this kolaveri kolaveri kolaveri di
why this kolaveri kolaveri kolaveri di
why this kolaveri kolaveri kolaveri di
why this kolaveri kolaveri kolaveri di

Below I have embedded two videos that impressed me.

Video #1

This video uploaded by sonymusicindiaSME on Nov 16, 2011 is an exclusive video shot during the recording of the song with the music composer Anirudh Ravichander, actors Dhanush, Shruti Hassan, director of the movie Aishwarya and sound engineer Sivakumar.

Video #2

This is the official video of the super hit song ‘Why This Kolaveri Di’ from the movie “3” featuring Dhanush. This was also uploaded by sonymusicindiaSME on Apr 10, 2012.

CEYLON 3 cents Postage Stamp


Myself By T.V. Antony Raj

A week ago, my nephew Reny Vincent, shared a post that he had come across in Facebook. This post written in Tamil is about a CEYLON stamp with a face value of 3 cents issued on the occasion of the Sambuddha Jayanthi 2500 Era 2nd Issue. After sharing this post, Reny wrote on my timeline on Facebook,  “Periappa, any comment? :-)”

I read the article. The author of this post has written very accurately the story about prince Vijaya, who hailed from the north-east part of India, arriving in Sri Lanka. What irked me, (and might have irked Reny as well, otherwise he would not have asked for my comment) was that the author after writing so beautifully has slandered the government of Sri Lanka and the Sinhalese people using vituperative language.

This is the post that Reny shared:

I have pointed out in red the stamp in question and the legend in Tamil that’s written underneath it.

Under the postage stamp, the author has described it as follows in Tamil:

The postage stamp that was released and retracted by the Lankan government

To see this post yourself click on this line. 

As I told your earlier this post is in Tamil and a lengthy one. If you can read Tamil, please click on the above link and try to find out the fallacy in the author’s statement about the postage stamp.

I feel that the the author, ignorant on the subject of postage stamps, had used this 3 cents postage stamp unscrupulously to rouse the rabble. And I would say that he had succeeded in his mission. Mind you, this post has been shared 97 times. And has been commented by 122 persons, and all of them, using abusive language against the government of Sri Lanka, its politicians, and the Sinhalese people

Here are 2 sample comments:

Comments #1: V nice to here the history of sri lanka how ever i also have this stamp with me but i don’t know the history i am v. grateful for your information. (sic)

Comments #2: இது சில‌ த‌மிழ் துரோகிகள் ப‌டிக்க‌ வேண்டிய‌து ஏன் என்றால் இவ‌ர்க‌ள் தான் கேக்கின்றார்க‌ள் பிழைக்க‌ போன‌ இட‌த்தில் ஏன் நாடு கேட்டு ச‌ண்டை போடுகின்றார்க‌ள் என்று அந்த‌ அயோக்கிய‌ர்க‌ள் ப‌டிக்க‌ வேண்டிய‌ முக்கிய‌ ப‌திவு இது. (sic)

I just don’t understand why some of these guys from Tamilnadu are so gullible. Is it the hate towards the Sinhalese stymieing their mind and obstructing their eyes from seeing what is apparently placed before them?

Okay. Here is my reply to my nephew:

Dear Reny,

The story of Vijaya and Kuveni is correctly told by this person as per what I learned. Also, Vijaya and his companions marrying Tamil women brought from South India is correct.  In fact, even the Sinhalese accept this.

I remember seeing a Sinhalese TV short film (a short story and not a documentary) on Rupavahini during 1983-84 or so at the height of ethnic troubles in which a Buddhist monk admonishes the irate crowd of Sinhales saying something like this: “Aren’t you ashamed to attack these (Tamil) women. Don’t you remember we originated from their wombs and drank the milk from their breasts?

Please note that this postage stamp was issued on May 23, 1956 and was invalidated on October 1, 1966 after a period of 10 years and 4 months. It has value of 3 cents and the name of the country is CEYLON and not Sri Lanka.

The name Sri Lanka for Ceylon came into existence only in 1971 when the Sri Lanka Freedom Party under the leadership of Mrs. Sirimavo Bandaranaike came to power. See my article “Remembering Sirimavo – The Modern World’s First Female Head of Government ”

So, the writer saying :

தபால் தலையை பார்த்த சிங்கள தலைவர்கள், அதற்கு எதிர்ப்பு தெரிவித்தனர். “விஜயன் இந்தியாவில் இருந்து இலங்கைக்கு வந்தவன் என்ற கருத்து ஏற்கத் தக்கது அல்ல. தவிரவும், விஜயன் வந்தபோதே இங்கு குவேனி என்ற தமிழ்ப்பெண் இருந்திருக்கிறாள் என்று கூறினால், இலங்கையின் பூர்வகுடிகள் தமிழர்கள் என்பதை நாமே ஒப்புக்கொண்டது போலாகிவிடும். எனவே, இந்த தபால் தலையை வாபஸ் பெறவேண்டும்” என்று கூறினார்கள்.

can not be accepted since during 1956 to 1966, there was no ethnic war in Sri Lanka (then Ceylon) and peace prevailed throughout the Island.

Also whether Kuveni was a Tamil woman and spoke Tamil is not authenticated. Since Tamil is an ancient language she might have spoken Tamil.

To accept the statement of mine about the 3 cents postage stamp, please click on this link Sambuddha Jayanthi 2500 Era 2nd Issue.

Also to know a little more about prince Vijaya and Kuveni click on these links :

So, please remember this axiom of mine:

Don’t immediately conclude that whatever that appears in Facebook is 100% true, and don’t come to the conclusion that all Sinhalese are bad because someone said so in Facebook.”

Fractions used by Ancient Tamils


Myself .

By T. V. Antony Raj

In our conversations, we, Tamils, use words denoting fractions very frequently without batting an eyelid.

A Tamil goldsmith will assure his client, “இம்மி அளவேனும் குறையாது (immi alavaenum kurayathu) meaning “not a fraction less”. Here, the word இம்மி (immi) is the Tamil word for the fraction 1/2150400 ≈ 4.6502976190476190476190476190476e-07.



The word “aNu“, meaning “Atom”, is used very frequently by the Tamils to denote very minute portions or particles. In ayurvedic and sidda medicines the naattu vaithiyar (the country doctor) might give instructions to his assistant to add “அணு அளவு பாதரசம்” (aNu alavu padharasam) meaning “an atom sized mercury”. Here the word அணு (aNu) is the Tamil word for the fraction 1/165580800 ≈ 6.0393475572047000618429189857761e-09.

Now, I wonder why the ancient Tamils had such names for these particular fractions. The smallest fraction to be named being தேர்த்துகள் (thaertthugal) which is

1/2323824530227200000000  ≈ 4.3032508995084501477534881372607e-22

I am not able to fathom the underlying reason for the ancient Tamils to use such minute fractions and name them too. I read somewhere that the only place where such minute fractions are used nowadays is in NASA but I am not sure.



Here is the list that I gathered of fractions used by the ancient Tamils:

1 – ஒன்று – onRu
3/4 = 0.75 – முக்கால் – mukkaal
1/2= 0.5 – அரை – arai
1/4 = 0.25 – கால் – kaal
1/5 = 0.2 – நாலுமா – naalumaa
3/16 = 0.1875 – மும்மாகாணி – mummaakaani
3/20 = 0.15 – மும்மா – mummaa
1/8 = 0.125 – அரைக்கால் – araikkaal
1/10 = 0.1 – இருமா – irumaa
1/16 = 0.0625 – மாகாணி (வீசம்) – maakaaNi (veesam)
1/20 = 0.05 – ஒருமா – orumaa
3/64 = 0.046875 – முக்கால்வீசம் – mukkaal veesam
3/80 = 0.0375 – முக்காணி – mukkaaNi
1/32 = 0.03125 – அரைவீசம் – araiveesam
1/40 = 0.025 – அரைமா – araimaa
1/64 = 0.015625 – கால் வீசம் – kaal veesam
1/80 = 0.0125 – காணி – kaaNi
3/320 = 0.009375 – அரைக்காணி முந்திரி – araikkaaNi munthiri
1/160 = 0.00625 – அரைக்காணி – araikkaaNi
1/320 = 0.003125 – முந்திரி – munthiri
3/1280 = 0.00234375 – கீழ் முக்கால் – keel mukkal
1/640 = 0.0015625 – கீழரை – keelArai
1/1280 = 7.8125e-04 – கீழ் கால் – keel kaal
1/1600 = 0.000625 – கீழ் நாலுமா – keel nalumaa
3/5120 ≈ 5.85938e-04 – கீழ் மூன்று வீசம் – keel moondru veesam
3/6400 = 4.6875e-04 – கீழ் மும்மா – keel mummaa
1/2500 = 0.0004 – கீழ் அரைக்கால் – keel araikkaal
1/3200 = 3.12500e-04 – கீழ் இருமா – keel irumaa
1/5120 ≈ 1.95313e-04 – கீழ் வீசம் – keel veesam
1/6400 = 1.56250e-04 – கீழொருமா – keelorumaa
1/102400 ≈ 9.76563e-06 – கீழ்முந்திரி – keezh munthiri
1/2150400 ≈ 4.65030e-07 – இம்மி – immi
1/23654400 ≈ 4.22754e-08 – மும்மி – mummi
1/165580800 ≈ 6.03935e-09 – அணு – aNu
1/1490227200 ≈ 6.71039e-10 – குணம் – kuNam
1/7451136000 ≈ 1.34208e-10 – பந்தம் – pantham
1/44706816000 ≈ 2.23680e-11 – பாகம் – paagam
1/312947712000 ≈ 3.19542e-12 – விந்தம் – vintham
1/5320111104000 ≈ 1.87966e-13 – நாகவிந்தம் – naagavintham
1/74481555456000 ≈ 1.34261e-14 – சிந்தை – sinthai
1/1489631109120000 ≈ 6.71307e-16 – கதிர்முனை – kathirmunai
1/59585244364800000 ≈ 1.67827e-17 – குரல்வளைப்படி – kuralvaLaippidi
1/3575114661888000000 ≈ 2.79711e-19 -வெள்ளம் – veLLam
1/357511466188800000000 ≈ 2.79711e-21 – நுண்மணல் – nuNNmaNal
1/2323824530227200000000 ≈ 4.30325e-22 – தேர்த்துகள் – thaertthugal



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