Tag Archives: Nazi

Was Adolf Hitler a Homosexual?


. Myself . By T.V. Antony Raj.

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Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler

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A subject of historical and scholarly debate is the sexuality of Adolf Hitler.

Though the Nazi Party opposed homosexuality and persecuted homosexuals, some historians argue that Hitler himself was a homosexual. The assertions of Hitler’s active or latent homosexuality, are not new. Many biographies of Hitler mention it. The accusations dogged Hitler during his rise to power and even after he gained it.

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Lothar Machtan, author of The Hidden Hitler. (Source: wikipedia.com)
Lothar Machtan, author of The Hidden Hitler. (Source: wikipedia.com)

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In the book, “Hitlers Geheimnis. Das Doppelleben eines Diktators” (“Hitler’s Secret: The Double Life of a Dictator“) published in 2001, German-Jewish professor and historian Dr. Lothar Machtan argues that Hitler was homosexual. John Maxwell Brownjohn has translated the book into English titled “The Hidden Hitler.” Though he acknowledges that some of the evidence is only circumstantial, this legacy of assertions and speculations is historical evidence.

Machtan teaches history at the University of Bremen in Germany. He suggests that in 1908 Hitler probably had a gay relationship with his friend August Kubizek, with whom he lived in Vienna; that during World War I, Hitler had a conspicuous sexual affair with a fellow soldier; that after the war he may have had homosexual contacts with young men in Munich; and that he may have engaged in homosexual activities right up to his assumption of political power in 1933. Machtan speculates on Hitler’s experiences in Vienna with young friends, his adult relationships with Ernst Röhm, Ernst Hanfstaengl and Emil Maurice. Machtan speculates on Hitler’s experiences in Vienna with young friends, his adult relationships with Ernst Röhm, Ernst Hanfstaengl and Emil Maurice.

Machtan further suggests that Hitler’s opposition to homosexuality and persecution of homosexuals while in power was not to rid himself of a political or military threat but to expunge potentially damaging evidence of his homosexual past. He accomplished it by silencing or eliminating the people who might reveal “disreputable secrets” of his ingrained homosexuality. For example, Hitler ordered the killing of Ernst Röhm, an affirmed and well-known homosexual among many others. Röhm was his longtime colleague and head of the SA paramilitary organization.

Machtan states that many documents have been dismissed or ignored without any grounds. One such main document is the so-called “Mend Protocol.” It is a statement made in 1939 by Hans Mend, a dispatch rider who had served with Hitler during World War I.

Hans Mend joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) before it came to power. In 1931, the NSDAP owned Huber Verlag. It published a book authored by Hans Mend titled “Adolf Hitler im Felde 1914-1918.” Mend wrote:

“In this book, I want to give the German people true and unvarnished information about Adolf Hitler as a front-line soldier. As a comrade I had many opportunities to hear his pronouncements on the war, witness his bravery, and became acquainted with his brilliant traits of character… I aim to prove that he was just the same in the field as he is today; courageous, fearless, outstanding… Everyone who knew him in the field had to admit that he was a model front-line soldier… who… as a combat orderly in static warfare performed super-human feats in a dangerous and responsible position.”as a combat orderly in static warfare performed super-human feats in a dangerous and responsible position.”

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Ernst Schmidt and Adolf Hitler (c. 1933). (Source: spartacus-educational.com)
Ernst Schmidt and Adolf Hitler (c. 1933). (Source: spartacus-educational.com)

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In December 1939, when Friedrich Alfred Schmid Noerr, a member of the German Resistance,  interviewed him, Mend told a different story than the one that appeared in his book. Mend claimed that Hitler had a homosexual relationship with Ernst Schmidt:

“We noticed that he never looked at a woman. We suspected him of homosexuality right away, because he was known to be abnormal in any case. He was extremely eccentric and displayed womanish characteristics which tended in that direction. He never had a firm objective, nor any kind of firm beliefs. In 1915 we were billeted in the Le Febre brewery at Fournes. We slept in the hay. Hitler was bedded down at night with Ernst Schmidt, his male whore. We heard a rustling in the hay. Then someone switched on his electric flashlight and growled, Take a look at those two nancy boys. I myself took no further interest in the matter.”

Schmidt was a dispatch-runner along with Hitler. In his book Machtan has pointed out:

“Employed as regimental runners, they jointly delivered one message with such efficiency – or so we are told – that from November 1914 on they were permanently assigned to regimental headquarters as so-called combat orderlies. As such, they had more freedom within the military hierarchy than other enlisted men… They were invariably to be seen as a couple, not only when jointly delivering regimental orders to brigade or battalion, but off duty behind the lines.”

Machtan also cites the notes left by Eugen Dollmann, German Diplomat and a member of the SS. Dollmann wrote that he had heard Otto von Lossow, a Reichswehr General in Munich after World War I, read from what Lossow claimed was a police file containing statements by young boys in Munich. Those boys, according to Lossow, said that Hitler had paid them to spend the night with him.

In 1943 the American Office of Strategic Services (OSS) received a commissioned report titled “A Psychological Analysis of Adolf Hitler: His Life and Legend,” written by Walter C. Langer assisted by other leading psychoanalysts. The report was to help the Allies understand Adolf Hitler. According to that report Hitler was an impotent coprophile – one who gets sexual pleasure out of playing with excrement.

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Death of Adolf Hitler – Part 1: The Reichskanzlei-Führerbunker


. Myself . By T.V. Antony Raj.

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Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler

In 1986, the East German government made plans to build a massive apartment complex on the corner of Vossstrasse and Wilhelmstrasse in what was then East Berlin. For constructing the complex it was necessary to demolish concrete from a darker past. Under the construction site, located 28 feet (8.5 metres) deep in the ground, was the most notorious and imposing bunker complex used by Adolf Hitler and his murderous band of Nazis at the close of World War II.

In 1987, Robert Conrad, a German photographer, disguised as a construction worker took the risk to secretly photograph Adolf Hitler’s decaying Reichskanzlei-Vorbunker-Führerbunker complex. Conrad said:

Of course there was nothing in the newspapers about the Nazi bunkers. That was very much a taboo subject, as was everything about the Nazi period… Officially, they were just constructing a new residential neighborhood.”

Wilhelmstrasse in 1934, Reich Chancellery and Foreign Office on the left
Wilhelmstrasse in 1934, Reich Chancellery and Foreign Office on the left

Wilhelmstrasse (German: Wilhelmstraße) is a major thoroughfare in the central Mitte and Kreuzberg districts of Berlin, Germany. The street whose former name was Husarenstraße was renamed Wilhelmstraße in honor King Frederick William I, who died in 1740.

Wilhelmstraße was recognized as the centre of the government, first of the Kingdom of Prussia, later of the unified German Reich, housing in particular the Reich Chancellery and the Foreign Office.

King Frederick William I (August 14, 1688 –  May 31, 1740) of Prussia built the Palais Schulenburg, at Wilhelmstraße 77, for his esteemed Lieutenant General Count Adolph Friedrich von der Schulenburg. The building was completed in 1739.

Palais Schulenburg - Main building and courtyard formerly located on Wilhelmstraße.
Palais Schulenburg – Main building and courtyard formerly located on Wilhelmstraße.

In 1875, after many ownerships, the feuding Radziwill heirs sold Palais Schulenburg to the German Reich. It became the Reichskanzlerpalais (Chancellor’s palace). It was the Chancellery of the German Reich from 1871 to 1945 from the time of Otto von Bismarck, the first Chancellor of Germany, and subsequent German Chancellors, the last being Adolf Hitler.

The Reichskanzlei-Vorbunker

Adolf Hitler (center) with his architects Professor Leonhard Gall (left) and Albert Speer (right) (Source: Deutsches Bundesarchiv Bild 183-H29050)
Adolf Hitler (center) with his architects Professor Leonhard Gall (left) and Albert Speer (right) (Source: Deutsches Bundesarchiv Bild 183-H29050)

In 1933, Adolf Hitler decided to expand the Reichskanzlei (Reich Chancellery), which he considered too small for his needs. On July 21, 1935, Professor Leonhard Gall, one of Adolf Hitler’s architects, submitted unique plans for a large reception hall to be built as an expansion of the old Chancellery, that could also be used as a ballroom.

The plan envisaged a bunker 5 feet (1.5 metres) beneath the cellar of the large reception hall behind the old Reich Chancellery at Wilhelmstraß. It had a 6.25 feet (1.6 metres) thick roof. The thick walls of the bunker were designed to support the weight of the large reception hall on top of it. The bunker had three doorways – to the north, west and south.

The construction was completed in 1936.

Schematic diagram of the Reichskanzlei-Vorbunker as it was in April 1945 (Source: Dennis Nilsson)
Schematic diagram of the Reichskanzlei-Vorbunker as it was in April 1945. (Source: Dennis Nilsson)

The bunker was meant to be a temporary air-raid shelter for Adolf Hitler, his guards, and servants. It was officially called the “Reich Chancellery Air-Raid Shelter” until 1943, with the construction to expand the complex with the addition of the Führerbunker, located one level below. From then on this bunker became known as the Vorbunker or forward bunker or upper bunker.

The New Reich Chancellery

Though Hitler lived in Reichskanzlerpalais he once commented that Bismarck’s Old Chancellery was “fit for a soap company” but not suitable as headquarters of a Greater German Reich. So, in January 1938, Hitler asked Albert Speer, his chief architect, to build a larger, grander, new Reich Chancellery on the same site as the existing structure. Hitler said he needed the new building built in a year, in time to host the foreign diplomats during his next New Year’s reception.

This huge undertaking was a tall order because the existing Chancellery was in full operation. After consultation with his assistants, Speer agreed to build it.

However, the site was cleared only in April, 1938. Speer employed thousands of workers in two shifts. He completed the task successfully in nine months.

New Reich Chancellery - The Eastern Administrative Building.
New Reich Chancellery – The Eastern Administrative Building.

Albert Speer presented the fully furnished New Reich Chancellery to Hitler two days earlier than the allotted last day.

Hitler, who had remained away from the project, was overwhelmed when he saw the large, impressive, structure that included a 480-feet (146 metres) long “Marble Gallery,” almost twice the length of the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles. In appreciation Hitler awarded Speer the Nazi Golden Party Badge. But in Winston Churchill’s words, it was the hub of “a monstrous tyranny never surpassed in the dark, lamentable catalogue of human crime.”

The Reichskanzlei-Führerbunker

3D model of Führerbunker (left) and Vorbunker (right) by Christopher Neubauer
3D model of Führerbunker (left) and Vorbunker (right) by Christopher Neubauer

The most famous and arguably the most notorious and elaborate bunker complex in Germany consisted of two separate shelters, constructed in two phases. The Vorbunker completed in 1936, and the Führerbunker, to the west-southwest, completed in 1944. Since the bunkers were kept secret, information and details about them are rather scarce.

Increased bombing of Berlin led to the expansion of the Vorbunker as an improvised permanent air-raid shelter. The Führerbunker located 2.5 metres (8.2 ft) lower than the Vorbunker was built about 28 feet (8.5 metres) beneath the garden of the old Reich Chancellery, 390 feet (120 metres) north of the new Reich Chancellery building at Voßstraße 6.

The Reichskanzlei-Führerbunker was the last of the Führer Headquarters used by Adolf Hitler.

Schematic diagram of the Reichskanzlei-Führerbunker  as it was in April 1945. (Source: Dennis Nilsson)
Schematic diagram of the Reichskanzlei-Führerbunker as it was in April 1945. (Source: Dennis Nilsson)

The above sketch of Reichskanzlei-Führerbunker is based on the photographs taken in 1988 by researcher Tom Posch of the remains of the bunkers and published in the book titled “The Berlin Führerbunker: The Thirteenth Hole, After the Battle, No.61“, Special Edition, Battle of Britain International Ltd, 1988.

The Vorbunker and the Führerbunker were connected by a stairway set at right angles and could be closed off from each other by a bulkhead and a steel door.

Besides being deeper underground, the Führerbunker had significantly more reinforcement than the Vorbunker. Its roof was made of concrete almost 10 feet (3 metres) thick. About 30 small rooms were protected by approximately 13 feet (4 metres) of concrete; exits led into the main buildings, as well as an emergency exit up to the garden.

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Previous – Prelude

Next → Part 2: Hitler retreats to the Reichskanzlei-Führerbunker

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