Tag Archives: Naxalite

The Tupamaros, Terrorists of Uruguay – Postlude


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Myself By T.V. Antony Raj

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A giant sculpture of a hand reaching out of the sand at Punta del Este, Uruguay (Source: thetextbiz.com)
A giant sculpture of a hand reaching out of the sand at Punta del Este, Uruguay (Source: thetextbiz.com)

On March 5, 2010, Juan Maria Bordaberry was sentenced to 30 years in prison (the maximum allowed under Uruguayan law) for murder. He was the second former Uruguayan dictator sentenced to a long prison term.

On July 17, 2011, Bordaberry died, aged 83, at his home. He had been suffering from respiratory problems and other illnesses. His remains are buried at Parque Martinelli de Carrasco.

José Mujica, the current president of Uruguay adopts a ruling style closer to center-left administrations of Lula in Brazil and Bachelet in Chile, unlike the harder-left leaders such as the late Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías, former president of Venezuela .

In 2012, José Mujica was lauded for a speech at the United Nations’ Rio+20 global sustainability conference in which he called for a fight against the hyper-consumption that is destroying the environment:

The cause is the model of civilization that we have created. And the thing we have to re-examine is our way of life.

Again in 2012, Mujica announced that the presidential palace would be included among the state shelters for the homeless.

In 2013 Mujica’s government pushed the world’s most progressive cannabis legalization bill through the Uruguayan Congress. He says:

This is not about being free and open. It’s a logical step. We want to take users away from clandestine business.

Guerilla warfare of Fidel Castro and Ernesto “Che” Guevara inspired the Tupamaros in Uruguay. Other Guerrilla outfits around the world while being inspired by Fidel Castro and Che Guevara, emulated the Tupamaros of Uruguay.

To a certain extent, the Tupamaros of Uruguay became the role model for urban guerrillas in India and in Sri Lanka.

In India the various Naxalite groups that are mostly associated with the Communist Party of India (Maoist), the Kashmiri ultras funded by the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) of Pakistan, and many other worldwide terror outfits have been inspired by the Tupamaros of Uruguay.

In Sri Lanka, Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (JVP) and the Tamil insurgent outfits such as the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), considered the Tupamaros as their role model.

The Naxalites of India

The Spreading Naxalite Threat (Source: vinay.howtolivewiki.com)
(Source: vinay.howtolivewiki.com)

In India, various Communist guerrilla groups, under the generic term “Naxalites”, were influenced by the Uruguayan Tupamaros.

Kanu Sanyal
Kanu Sanyal (1932 – March 23, 2010)

The first Naxal movement led by Kanu Sanyal, an Indian communist politician, originated in the village of Naxalbari in West Bengal in 1967.

On May 18, 1967, Jangal Santhal, president of the Siliguri Kishan Sabha declared his support for the movement initiated by Kanu Sanyal. The members of the Sabha readily consented to adopt armed struggle for redistribution of land to the landless.

Through the activities of underground groups like the Communist Party of India (Maoist), Kanu Sanyal’s Naxalite ideology spread to less developed regions of rural eastern and southern India, such as Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Andhra Pradesh. Today it has the following of displaced tribal people fighting against exploitation of their land by major Indian corporations and corrupt local officials.

During the 1970s, the original Naxal movement got fragmented into various factions due to internal conflicts among their leaders. In 1980, about 30 Naxalite groups were active in India, with a combined membership of 30,000 cadres.

Terrorists of Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka, two terrorist groups involved in guerilla warfare against the governments were very much influenced by the Cuban revolutionists and the Uruguayan Tupamaros.

The Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (JVP) of Sri Lanka

Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna logo

The Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (People’s Liberation Front) (JVP), a Marxist-Leninist communist political party was led by Rohana Wijeweera (born Patabendi Don Nandasiri Wijeweera).

Rohana Wijeweera
Patabendi Don Nandasiri Wijeweera (14 July 1943 – 13 November 1989)

The JVP involved in two armed insurrections against the Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP) government in 1971 and against the United National Party (UNP) government in 1987-89.

After 1989, the JVP entered the mainstream of democratic politics. They became popular to a certain extent and participated in the 1994 parliamentary election.

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The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) of Sri Lanka

LTTE Logo

The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), was a separatist militant organization based in northern Sri Lanka formed in May 1976 by Velupillai Prabhakaran.

Velupillai Prabhakaran (November 26, 1954 – May 18, 2009)
Velupillai Prabhakaran (November 26, 1954 – May 18, 2009)

The LTTE waged a secessionist nationalist campaign to create an independent and autonomous country for the Tamil people in the north and east of Sri Lanka. Their pursuit to create a mono ethnic Tamil Eelam evolved into the Sri Lankan Civil War (1983-2009).

The LTTE had a well-developed militia and were the first militant group to acquire air power. They carried out many high-profile attacks, including the assassinations of several high-ranking Sri Lankan and Indian politicians. The LTTE was the only militant group to assassinate two world leaders: former Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in 1991, and Sri Lankan President Ranasinghe Premadasa in 1993.

The LTTE movement is currently proscribed as a terrorist organization by 32 countries, including India. However, it had and still has the support amongst many Tamil political parties in Tamil Nadu in India.

Velupillai Prabhakaran, the founder of the LTTE, was killed on May 18, 2009, by the Sri Lankan army.

Eventually, the LTTE militants were defeated by the Sri Lankan Military in 2009.

Though the Tupamaros movement in Uruguay, the JVP and LTTE movements in Sri Lanka were annihilated by outright military action in both countries, they all have set a standard for an intelligent violence unequaled in modern times. Though there is no doubt about the flair, bravery and genius of those insurgents, there lingers doubts about their politics. The German strategist, Von Clausewitz, much admired by Lenin, wrote:

War is only the violent extension of politics; if the politics are wrong to start with, the war will probably go the same way.”

 

 Previous – Part 9:  Restoration of Democracy in Uruguay

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Day 13: Alex Paul Menon, District Collector of Sukma, Chhattisgarh has been released from captivity.


At last a heartening news: Alex Paul Menon, the District Collector of Sukma, Chhattisgarh abducted on April 21, by Maoist insurgents has been released from captivity today (Thursday, May 3, 2012).

“I am tired, shattered. I want to go home to my family first. I would just like to rest … I am fine. I will speak after a day…” said Alex Menon.

For further news please click on the links under Related Articles.

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SOUTH ASIA INTELLIGENCE REVIEW


Even as the hostage crisis winds down, with the release of the Sukma DC currently under negotiation, urgent questions persist regarding the conduct of the state during these crises and, more broadly, the fundamentals of ‘negotiating with terrorists’ or with ‘hostage takers’. There has been much commentary on the state’s ‘capitulation’ and the obvious and adverse consequences, both of releasing active Maoists from jail, and of the ‘demonstration effect’ which will ‘naturally’ encourage future abductions, given the success of the present instances.

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Arcana Intellego

Weekly Assessments & Briefings
Volume 10, No. 43, April 30, 2012

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Data and assessments from SAIR can be freely published in any form with credit to the South Asia Intelligence Review of the
South Asia Terrorism Portal

ASSESSMENT

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INDIA

 

The Hostage State
Ajai Sahni
Editor, SAIR; Executive Director, Institute for Conflict Management & SATP

A rolling crisis of high profile abductions, initiated with the kidnapping of two irresponsible Italians in Odisha on March 14, 2012, continues to hold the national attention, with Alex Paul Menon, the District Collector (DC) of the newly formed Sukma District in Chhattisgarh, still in the custody of the Maoist’s Dandakaranya Special Zonal Committee (DKSZC), since his abduction on April 21, 2012. Significantly, even as the Menon abduction is discussed threadbare, little mention is made of the two policemen guarding him, who were murdered in cold blood by the Maoists. In the…

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Day 10 Evening: Abduction of Alex Paul Menon, District Collector of Sukma, Chhattisgarh.


‘B’ indicates the village of Samathanapuram on the map.

When travelling from Tirunelveli to Nagercoil on State Highway 177, about 1.7 km from the town of Panagudi, there is a small village called Samathanapuram. This is the native village of the 32 year old Alex Paul Menon who was appointed as the First Collector of the newly formed Sukma District which was created by carving out the Maoist-infested Dantewada, in the South Bastar Region of the mineral-rich state of Chhattisgarh.

Alex Paul Menon, Collector of Sukma District, Chhattisgarh.

On Saturday April 21, at about 4:30 pm, cadres of the banned Communist Party of India (Maoist) abducted Alex Paul Menon. He is being held as a hostage by the insurgents who are demanding the release of 17 jailed cadres, and a halt to “Operation Green Hunt” – the anti-Maoist drive.

The Maoists rebels named B.D. Sharma, former IAS (Indian Administrative Service) officer and Professor G. Hargopal of Hyderabad as mediators acceptable to them to negotiate the release of Alex Paul Menon.

The Chhattisgarh government, in turn, has named Suyogya Kumar Mishra, former Chief Secretary of Chhattisgarh, and Nirmala Buch, former Union Secretary and Chief Secretary of Madhya Pradesh as the government representatives.

Mr. B.D. Sharma, and Professor G. Hargopal  met the rebels on Saturday, April 28, in the Tadmetla forest.

They returned on Sunday, April 29, morning from the forest area with a reply from the Maoists, but refused to divulge what transpired during their meeting. The two mediators said: “Collector Menon is safe, we will share our discussion with Maoists only with the government-mediators in Raipur.”

Raman Singh Chief Minister of Chattisgarh
Raman Singh Chief Minister of Chattisgarh (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Finally the form of an agreement between the two mediators named by the Maoists and the mediators of the Chhattisgarh government, at their fourth round of talks, was reached today (Monday April, 30) evening. A two-page agreement was initialed by the mediators in the presence of Principal Secretary (Home) N.K. Aswal. Chief Minister Raman Singh told reporters: “I hope Alex Paul Menon will be released within 48 hours.”

To read the breakthrough to ensure the safe return of the 32-year-old collector click on these two links:

  1. Maoists agree to release Sukma collector Alex Paul Menon.
  2. Sukma Collector Alex Paul Menon to be released in 48 hours: Maoists’ mediators.
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Day 10: Abduction of Alex Paul Menon, District Collector of Sukma, Chhattisgarh.


Alex Paul Menon, Collector of Sukma District, Chhattisgarh.

The Maoist rebels who abducted Alex Paul Menon, the District Collector of Sukma, Chhattisgarh on April 21, did not allow the two mediators selected by them – B.D. Sharma, former IAS (Indian Administrative Service) officer and Professor G. Hargopal of Hyderabad – to meet him.

The two mediators met the rebels on Saturday (yesterday) in the Tadmetla forest. They stayed overnight and briefed the Maoists on their talks with the government elected mediators, Mr. S.K. Mishra, former chief secretary of Chhattisgarh and Ms. Nirmala Buch, former Madhya Pradesh chief secretary.

They returned yesterday (Sunday) morning from the forest area with a reply from the Maoists, but refused to divulge what transpired during their meeting. The two mediators said: “Collector Menon is safe, we will share our discussion with Maoists only with the government-mediators in Raipur.”

“As someone who has served in the Tamil Nadu cadre of the Indian Administrative Service, I feel worse than miserable reading and hearing of Collector Alex Paul Menon’s ordeal. But unlike Alex, who has put his life on the line, I have never had to face personal or physical danger in the course of official duty,” said Gopalkrishna Gandhi.

To read the full text of the statment of Gopalkrishna Gandhi click this link –> “Alex’s bravery is an example to cherish and follow

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Day 9: Abduction of Alex Paul Menon, District Collector of Sukma, Chhattisgarh.


Alex Paul Menon, Collector of Sukma District, Chhattisgarh.

On April 21, Maoists rebels disguised as villagers took Alex Paul Menon, the District Collector of Sukma, Chhattisgarh as hostage at gunpoint from a forested location in Sukma district, some 500 km south of Raipur. When the Collector’s two security guards resisted his abduction, the Maoists shot them dead.

According to Official sources the Maoists have in the meantime upped their demand. They now want the release of 17 jailed cadres, instead of the eight named by them earlier, and a halt to “Operation Green Hunt” – the anti-Maoist drive.

Official sources said the Chhattisgarh government, desperate to ensure the safe release of Alex PaulMenon, has positively responded to the wo demands placed by Maoists.

The two mediators – B.D. Sharma, former IAS (Indian Administrative Service) officer and Professor G. Hargopal of Hyderabad met the rebels on Saturday (yesterday) with a message from the Chhattisgarh government. Today (Sunday) morning they came out from the rebels infested area with a reply from the Maoists.

However, the two mediators refused to divulge any details of the Maoists’ reply. They said: “Collector Menon is safe, we will share our discussion with Maoists only with the government-mediators in Raipur.”

Earlier, before visiting the Maoist hideout, Mr. Sharma and Prof. Hargopal had several rounds of closed-door meetings at Raipur’s state guest house with Mr. S.K. Mishra, former chief secretary of Chhattisgarh and Ms. Nirmala Buch, former Madhya Pradesh chief secretary – the two mediators appointed by the government.

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Day 8: Abduction of Alex Paul Menon, District Collector of Sukma, Chhattisgarh.


Alex Paul Menon, Collector of Sukma District, Chhattisgarh.

BHOPAL: Even as the second round of talks between interlocutors was set to begin at Raipur, outlawed Communist Party of India (Maoist) circulated a three page note early on Friday morning, listing in detail their perception about the problems being faced by the tribals and incidents of alleged atrocities by the security forces in tribal Bastar region of Chhattisgarh.

A three page note “why we detained the collector”, issued by CPI (Maoist) South Bastar regional committee secretary Ganesh Uike said they were forced to issue such a statement to set the record straight after a group of so-called intellectuals, supported by vested interests, unleashed a propaganda to whip up sympathy in favour of the Sukma collector.

To read the full article please click this link –> Maoists justify abduction of Chhattisgarh collector Alex Paul Menon

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Day 7: Abduction of Alex Paul Menon, District Collector of Sukma, Chhattisgarh.


Alex Paul Menon, Collector of Sukma District, Chhattisgarh.

Alex Paul Menon, District Collector of Sukma, Chhattisgarh, abducted by the Maoist on 21 rebels is an asthma patient, and the abductors informed the Chhattisgarh government that their hostage was critically ill.

Medicines delivered

The Maoist insurgents wanted Mr. Manish Kunjam, a Communist Party of India leader and President of All India Adivasi Mahasabha, and a former MLA from Konta district as one of the mediators acceptable to them to negotiate the release of Alex Paul Menon who was held hostage by them.

But Manish Kunjam was reluctant to act as a mediator.

“Some reporters had suggested that I should take medicines for Menon after I declined to mediate on behalf of the Maoists. The chief minister of Chhattisgarh also asked me if I could go with the medicines. It was important as the Maoists had said in a statement that he was critical,” said Kunjam.

Kunjam said he rode about 150-175 km on a motorcycle to the jungles and back to deliver the medicines. The Maoists met him beyond Tadmetla village.

When reporters questioned him these were some of his replies:

“He got the medicines on Wednesday afternoon.”

“I did what I was asked to do — I went and gave the medicines.”

“I could not meet Mr Menon. I delivered the medicines to the Naxal leaders, who said the district magistrate is fine. I have accomplished the task assigned to me by the Chhattisgarh government “

“I was there to deliver medicines for Menon, not to act as a messenger. Also I have been kept out of the dialogue process and hence cannot comment on this matter.”

“The Chhattisgarh government has also taken some positive steps. I hope he will be freed soon.”

After delivering the medicine, Manish Kunjam went to his his native village Ramaram.

Negotiations under way

On April 22 the Maoists sent an anonymous taped message to media outlets in the state. The message asked the Chhattisgarh government to free eight key leaders: Marakam Gopannam, Nirmal Akka, Devpal Chandra Shekher Reddy, Shanti Priya Reddy, Meena Chowdhary, Korasa Sunny, Markan Sunny and Asit Kumar Sen who are in jail now.

To negotiate the release of of Alex Paul Menon the Maoists named the following three as acceptable to them:

    • Manish Kunjam,a Communist Party of India leader and President of All India Adivasi Mahasabha, and a former MLA from Konta district.
    • Prashant Bhushan, a noted Supreme Court lawyer and a core committee member of Team Anna.
    • B.D. Sharma, former commissioner for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, one of India’s foremost experts on tribal issues and a former Collector of undivided Bastar.

The Chhattisgarh government, in turn named the following two as the government representatives:

    • Suyogya Kumar Mishra, former Chief Secretary of Chhattisgarh
    • Nirmala Buch, former Union Secretary and Chief Secretary of Madhya Pradesh

Out of the three named by the Moists only B.D. Sharma agreed to get involved in the mediation. The Maoists then proposed the name of Professor G. Hargopal, based in Hyderabad as another mediator they were willing to talk to.

The first round of talks between the Maoists and the four negotiators – the two mediators named by Maoists and two former bureaucrats appointed by the Chhattisgarh government, for the release of Alex Paul Menon was held on Thursday.

During the meeting, the two sides discussed all aspects related to the Maoists’ two demands:

    • the release of eight jailed rebels
    • a freeze on “Operation Green Hunt” against them.

Official sources said the closed door meeting on Thursday held at the government guest house went on for more than three hours and the talks are proceeding in a positive direction.

“It was a very constructive and positive talk,” Nirmala Buch told reporters on Thursday.

The second round of talks of talks began at 9 am on Friday.

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Day 6: Abduction of Alex Paul Menon, District Collector of Sukma, Chhattisgarh.


Alex Paul Menon, Collector of Sukma District, Chhattisgarh.

Alex Paul Menon, District Collector of Sukma, Chhattisgarh and his entourage were ambushed by Maoist insurgents disguised as villagers when they were returning to their bas after attending the Gram Suraj Abhiyaan – a state government-run programme meant to promote greater coordination and connect between the villagers and administration. The rebels killed two security personnel of the Collector and took him as hostage.

The Collector, is an asthma patient, and the abductors informed the Chhattisgarh government that their hostage was critically ill.

Their statement said, “It’s our appeal to Mrs Asha Paul Menon, his friends, family and IAS officers that Mr Alex Paul Menon’s health is very critical. It’s our request to please send his medicines from the mediators. The delay being caused by the officials is responsible for his bad health and if something happens, it will be the government’s responsibility,” (sic)

On Sunday, the day after the Maoists demanded the release of eight of their leaders jailed in Chhattisgarh and a halt to “Operation Green Hunt” in exchange for freeing Alex Paul Menon. They set the deadlinefor the government to meet their demands to 5 pm yesterday.

Tension prevails in Chhattisgarh, and government officials are in a quandary since the deadline set by the Maoists has expired. The government has not received any communication from the abductors about the fate of the young official who hails from Tirunelveli District of Tamilnadu.

Reports say that the staff in Chief Minister Raman Singh’s office was constantly interacting with officials in the district for updates about a possible extension to the deadline by the rebels.

Hours after the statement was released, Mr Kunjam was rushed by the state government with urgent medicines for Mr Menon. Mr Kunjam delivered the medicines today to Mr Menon. Mr Kunjam is one of the three mediators named by the Maoists, who they would be willing to negotiate through. Prashant Bhushan, another mediator named by the Maoists, has however refused to take part in the negotiation process.

Yesterday, Manish Kunjam, a Communist Party of India leader and President of All India Adivasi Mahasabha, and a former MLA from Konta district, one of the three mediators named by the Maoists collected the medicines from Menon’s wife and delivered it to the critically ill Collector.

Prashant Bhushan, a noted Supreme Court lawyer and a core committee member of Team Anna, the second person named by the Maoists as a mediator refused to accept the theirproposal saying that the Collector should be released unconditionally.

After Prashant Bhushan and Manish Kunjam refused the offer to act as mediators, yesterday, in a message sent to media houses, the Maoists proposed the name of Professor G. Hargopal, based in Hyderabad as another mediator they were willing to talk to .

“I have participated earlier in two hostage crises. I believe that it should happen without any loss of life. I am thinking about going with B D Sharma. We will have to see both the government’s and the Maoists’ point of views. Why the poor tribals are fighting today. This is not just about the abduction; we will have to work to stop this. The government will have to accept the rights of the tribals,” Professor Hargopal said yesterday.

Professor Haragopal is said to be the man who played a crucial role in February 2011 in the release of Malkangiri district collector R. Vineel Krishna held hostage by the Maoists in neighboring Orissa.

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Developments in Chennai for the release of Alex Paul Menon.


Alex Paul Menon chatting with villagers.

The abducted District Collector of Sukma, Alex Paul Menon’s family members have been camping in Chennai and have appealed to Ms. J. Jayalalithaa, Chief Minister of Tamilnadu, to intercede for his early release.

On Monday, April 23, the Chief Minister of Tamilnadu urged Manmohan SinghPrime Minister of India, to take immediate steps to ensure his safe release since the family members of Alex Paul Menon were very worried about his safety and health and were fervently looking for good news.

Expressing confidence that the Union Home Ministry would have already taken steps to ensure the safe release of Menon, she said, “It is very unfortunate that the officer was abducted while he was discharging his official duties.”

Expressing confidence that the Union Home Ministry would have already taken steps to ensure the safe release of Menon, the CM said that since the officer was not keeping well, his family members were worried about his safety.

Mr. M Karunanidhi, chief of Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, issued a statement, wherein he has asked that the Centre provide all necessary help to the Chhattisgarh government to ensure safety and early release of the abducted official.

The State unit of BJP insisted that the Centre should take necessary steps to curtail such violent acts with an iron hand. Pon Radhakrishnan, Tamilnadu state president of the party said that abduction and killing of officials had become a trivial matter for Maoists. He said that his party wanted the Centre and the Chattisgarh government to take the necessary measures for the release of the abducted District Collector of Sukma.

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