Taj Mahal – Part 1: Amir Timur, Founder of the Timurid Empire

Myself . 

By T. V. Antony Raj


The name “Taj Mahal” is of Persian/Arabic/Urdu (تاج محل) origin‎ meaning “crown of palaces.”

The Mughal emperor Shah Jahan built Taj Mahal, a white marble mausoleum in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India, in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal.

Even today, this mausoleum stands as the finest example of Mughal architecture that combines elements from Islāmic, Persian, Ottoman Turkish and Indian architectural styles – the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world’s heritage.


Amir Timur (April 9, 1336— February 18, 1405)

Forensic facial reconstruction of Timur by M.Gerasimov in 1941.
Forensic facial reconstruction of Timur by M.Gerasimov in 1941.


Amir Timur (April 9, 1336— February 18, 1405), the last of the great nomadic Turco-Mongol conquerors of the Eurasian Steppe and founder of the Timurid Empire in Persia and Central Asia, is historically known as “Tamerlane”, “Tamerlan”, and “Taimur”. He was born into the Barlas confederation in Transoxiana.

According to British historian John Joseph Saunders1972), whose work focused on medieval Islamic and Asian history, Timur’s background was Iranized and not steppe nomad.

Timur visualized the restoration of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan.

By 1370, Timur gained control of the western Chagatai Khanate. From there, he launched military campaigns across Western, South and Central Asia, Caucasus and southern Russia. After he emerged as the most powerful ruler in the Muslim world he founded the Timurid Empire after defeating the Mamluks of Egypt and Syria, the emerging Ottoman Empire, and the declining Delhi Sultanate that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years from 1206.

Capture of Delhi (1398)

On September 24, 1398, Amir Timur’s army invaded northern India by crossing the Indus River at Attock (now Pakistan). Timur then marched his army to Delhi to Delhi, to fight the armies of Sultan Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq, which had already been weakened by a succession struggle within the royal family. On the way to Delhi, Timur was opposed by Ahirs and Jats and encountered resistance by the Governor of Meerut.



Genghis Khan (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genghis_Khan

Timur (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timur

Counterview: Taimur’s actions were uniquely horrific in Indian history (https://scroll.in/article/825287/counterview-taimurs-actions-were-uniquely-horrific-in-indian-history

Transoxiana (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transoxiana

Tughlaq dynasty (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tughlaq_dynasty

Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nasir-ud-Din_Mahmud_Shah_Tughluq