On August 15, 1947, India became independent of the British rule as a constitutional monarchy with King George VI as head of state and Earl Mountbatten as the governor-general.
The country, then did not have a permanent constitution. Its laws were based on the modified colonial government of India Act 1935. So, on 28 August 1947, a Drafting Committee was appointed to create a permanent constitution, with Dr.B. R. Ambedkar as chairman. On November 4, 1947, this committee submitted a draft constitution to the Assembly. The Assembly met, in sessions open to the public, for 166 days, spread over a period of two years, 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. After many deliberations and modifications, the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document in Hindi and English on January 24, 1950. Two days later, on January 26, the constitution came into effect throughout the nation.
Today, 26 January, India celebrates its 64th Republic Day.
While India’s Independence Day celebrates its freedom from British Rule, the Republic Day celebrates the coming into force of its constitution.