Tag Archives: India

Chennai: Come December…


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Myself 

By T.V. Antony Raj

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Chennai floods (Source: ndtv.com)
Chennai floods (Source: ndtv.com)

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December 1, 2015:

It rained through the night in Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. The incessant rains that plagued us for the past three weeks did not seem to abate.

At 7.11 am, while I was still in bed my boarding and classmate Sunderaraj Kagoo, former Managing Partner of Star Brand Sweets, Colombo, had given me a call. I was not able to call him back since my cell’s battery had run down.

There was no way to charge my cell because we had  no electricity supply.

Of all the rainy days that started in mid-November, 2015, today it rained heavily and forcefully.

Since the cable TV line was completely out and my 100 MB internet connection was dead, there was no way to know what was happening around us. We were not able to go out of our house to shop for essentials due to the torrent.

My second daughter Subodhra living in Palayamkottai, 620 km away from Chennai, phoned my wife. She said it did not rain there in Tirunelveli. She inquired how we were faring since she saw several news channels on TV covering the floods in Chennai. She said that Velachery, about 5 km from our house was flooded and that boats were being deployed to evacuate the marooned from their flooded houses to safety. My wife assured her that we were safe.

At 6:45 pm electricity came on.

At 6:48 pm my cousin Lawrence rang up inquired whether we were safe. He assured us that his house safe. I could hear children shouting and music in the background and immediately knew that the first birthday of his second grandson Tom Philip was being celebrated. I blessed the child over the phone and told Lawrence that even if they had invited us for the birthday party we would not have made it.

At 7:00 pm my wife, daughter Sujatha and I ran to the house on the first floor of the flat opposite our house to attend the first birthday party of a year-old toddler.

At 7:30 pm while the party was on, the electric power was cut off and we had the birthday dinner by candle light.

We returned home at 8:00 pm.

It poured heavily.

At 9:00 pm since we had no electricity, TV broadcast nor the internet, I tried to call my daughter Subodhra at Palayamkottai to know about the situation in Chennai that she would have seen on TV . Alas, to our bad luck the Vodafone network was out of service.

At 9:20 pm remembering the phone call from Sunderaraj Kagoo, I tried his number, but I was not able to get through. Then I noticed that my service provider Aircel too was out of service.

Since there was no electricity, we were not able to turn on the electric mosquito repellers and had to sleep at the mercy of the swarming mosquitoes.

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After the inundation of the arterial Grand Southern Trunk (GST) Road south and north of Tambaram, all roads leading to Tambaram submerged at various stretches making Tambaram inaccessible to the rest of the city and for those heading towards Chennai city from Chengalpattu.

December 2, 2015:

It rained heavily in the morning.

I saw a few strangers in our neighbour Lokanayaki’s house. She told me that they were her relatives from nearby Pallikaranai and flood waters had entered their house up to their neck and so had come to her house for shelter.

Around 4:00 pm the rain ceased and there was only a pleasant drizzle. I took this opportunity to venture out on my two-wheeler to buy essential foods and medicines.

All the ATMs in our neighbourhood were out of service.

I went to one of the local medical shops. The proprietor was there and I asked him whether the card machine worked. The proprietor reluctantly said no. Then he asked how much my purchase would amount to. When I said more than ₹500, he said he would try to accommodate me since the backup battery had almost died out. He then took my order which amounted to ₹580 and switched on the card reader which came to life after a bit of coaxing. I thanked him for obliging and left the shop with the medicines.

The main road between Velachery and Tambaram is flooded in many places with hidden potholes lurking under the muddy waters. So, buses are not plying. I am not able to travel on my two-wheeler more than 100 metres either way from Pallikarani Oil Mill Stop.

I took the risk and waded through deep waters on my vehicle for about a kilometre and finally saw eggs stored on plastic trays at a shop. I bought a dozen eggs for ₹6 each.

On my way back home the engine of my two-wheeler stopped. I cranked the fuel tap to reserve and retraced my route. I found more than 50 people waiting in a queue to fill their motorcycles and cars at the petrol bunk. Finally, after waiting for about 30 minutes my turn came and after filling the tank with petrol and oil for ₹200, I returned home around 5:30 pm.

At 6:30 pm it was dark. I ventured out on my two-wheeler to buy a pair of batteries for my LCD torch. Almost all the shops were closed. Finally, I saw an electrical shop where an oil lamp lit the inside dimly. Luckily the batteries were available and I hurried home.

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In the evening we heard that Chennai was officially declared a disaster area.

December 3, 2015:

Rains continued to plague Chennai.

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Around 11:00 am we saw an army helicopter crossing far away from our house.

Around 1:30 pm we received electricity. We were able to see TV programmes.

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PM Narendra Modi viewing flooded Chennai from a helicopter (Source: financialexpress.com)
PM Narendra Modi viewing flooded Chennai from a helicopter (Source: financialexpress.com)

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We were made aware that the Chief Minister of Tamilnadu viewed the damages wrought by the incessant rains from the comfort of a helicopter. We also came to know that the Prime Minister who had come all the way from New Delhi too viewed the damages travelling on a separate helicopter.

At 6:30 pm some of our neighbours hurried towards the main road. My wife told me that the ATMs were working. I too took my debit card and ran to the main road. We were all disappointed for one ATM displayed the “Sorry. No money!” sign and the other two ATMs had shuttered down. It was a rumour.

Around 7:00 pm the electric supply was cut off and we were once again in the dark.

Around 7:30 pm my nephew Raphael Leo came home by motorbike to our house to inquire whether we and his mother-in-law who lives about 200 metres away from our house were safe. My son Subas Raj in Ellicott City, MD, USA had contacted him on WhatsApp and had asked him to check on us.

Though relief efforts were well underway across some of the flooded areas in Chennai, the lack of any coordinated relief response forced thousands of its residents to evacuate their houses on their own.

December 4, 2015:

From 5:00 am we had no rain and the sun shone through thick clouds. We were happy and thought the rains had finally ceased. With a letup in rainfall, floodwaters gradually began to recede in some areas in Chennai though 40 percent of the city remained submerged. Safe food and drinking water was in short supply.

Still no cell phone service. And there is no internet.

The electric supply comes in spurts. TV works intermittently even when electricity is available.

The internet was available from 1:45 pm today.

At 2:30 pm ominous dark clouds started gathering and it started to rain heavily.

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A patient getting shifted to another hospital from MIOT Hospital after flooding of the area due to heavy rainfall in Chennai . PTI
A patient getting shifted to another hospital from MIOT Hospital after flooding of the area due to heavy rainfall in Chennai . PTI

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Around 6:30 pm I saw the heart-wrenching news on TV channels about the loss of 18 patients who had died at the MIOT International Hospital in Manapakkam, Chennai, due to overflowing of flood waters from Adyar river that breached the hospital’s walls, damaging equipment in its path.

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Three Ministers: Natham Viswanathan, Gokul Indra, Selur Raju) (Source: vikatan.com)
Three Ministers: Natham Viswanathan, Gokul Indra, Selur Raju. (Source: vikatan.com)

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Two TV channels showed AIADMK Tamilnadu State Ministers Natham Viswanathan, Gokula Indra, and Selur Raju being chased away by the public when they visited the Chief Minister’s R.K. Nagar electorate. They had come to the CM’s electorate to meet the people in lieu of their head. The ministers arrived in a cortege of 18 cars, and without getting down from their vehicles, the ministers spoke to the people. This infuriated the people. They asked the ministers to get down from their vehicles and get their feet wet as they did. After an argument, the ministers with the protection and cordoning by the police escaped the fury of the mass.

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AIADMK cadres sticking stickers of JJ (Source: Dinakaran.com)
AIADMK cadres sticking stickers of JJ on foods and other essentials brought in for distribution by some charitable public and non-AIADMK organisations. (Source: Dinakaran.com)

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Then we came across the shameful news that in some areas in Chennai the AIADMK hooligans are abrogating the work done by the charitable people and NGOs in Chennai by sticking stickers of JJ on the food parcels brought by them for distribution. If they could not help at least they should not steal the credits that are due to the helping people with their hard earned money and organizations who do not belong to their party. Instead, these shameless ruffians could have volunteered to work in the flood affected areas instead of stealing efforts made by others; or they could have pressured their higher-ups from the lowly municipal councilors to the Chief Minister to distribute free food from their “Amma Canteens” and distribute free “Amma Water” Bottles.

There seems to be a voltage drop and the electricity might be cut off at any moment.

For now, my family and I are safe. Please see the TV news channels for the overall situation now prevailing in Chennai.

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A Nondescript Village in Tamilnadu, India Stages 100 Dramas Every Year!


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Myself 

By T.V. Antony Raj

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The Valayankulam village located 22 km from Madurai City in Tamilnadu, India has a population of 5705 comprising 1514 families as per the Population Census of 2011.

Map showing Valayankulam

This village has a low literacy rate – 69.57% compared to 80.09% of Tamil Nadu. The Male literacy stands at 77.96% while the female literacy rate was 61.23%.

As per the constitution of India and Panchayati Raaj Act, an elected Sarpanch (Head of Village) administers the Valayankulam village.

Valaiyaangulam Subburaj Theatre (Photo: Dhanasekaran Muthu/ssl.panoramio.com)

Valaiyaangulam Subburaj Theatre (Photo: Dhanasekaran Muthu/ssl.panoramio.com)

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The cynosure in most village festivals in Tamilnadu would be entertainment items such as the theru koothu, karakaattam, dancing, singing, drama or a pattimandram (debating platforms), etc. But, what many, even in Tamilnadu, do not know is the fact that this nondescript village enacts 100 dramas every year  to please the village deity – “Thaanaai mulaitha Thanilinga Perumal” (தானாய் முளைத்த தனிலிங்கப் பெருமாள்) meaning “self-sprouted Thanilinga Perumal”.  So much so, the villagers do not fancy cinema theatres.

Even in this modern scientific era, women barred from entering the Thanilinga Perumal temple, pray to the deity standing outside the temple.

On the stage erected in front of the temple, the villagers allow only performance of dramas. They consider the stage sanctified and none can approach it wearing any kind of footwear.

According to a former village headman, the deity Thanilinga Perumal loves staged dramas; hence his devotees perform dramas 100 days per year to please him.

Devotees entreat the deity to fulfil their request and in return pledge to stage a drama of their liking when the deity answers their prayers.

A drama performed at Valayankulam Thanilinga Perumal temple stage. (Source: Facebook/Art and Cultural Rights of Folk Artists)
A drama performed at Valayankulam Thanilinga Perumal temple stage. (Source: Facebook/Art and Cultural Rights of Folk Artists)

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This tradition of staging dramas in this particular village dates back to the days of Thirumalai Nayakkar who ruled Madurai from 1623 to 1659 when a severe drought brought famine to Valayankulam and other surrounding villages. Since the people believed the deity Thanilinga Perumal loved staged drama, they pledged to perform a drama if he  answered their prayer for rain. Miraculously, it rained and the village had a bountiful harvest. As obligated, the villagers staged a drama the following year to thank their village deity. From then on to date, the village has been performing dramas to please their deity.

Around this time, when king Thirumalai Nayakkar visited the Thanilinga Perumal temple, the villagers entertained him by performing a drama from Mahabharata titled “Abhimanyu Sundari” – the story of Abhimanyu, son of Arjuna and Subhadra, and his first wife Sundari. The king relished the play and praised the actors who took part in it, and those actors adopted the phrase ‘Thirumalai mechinaar‘ (திருமலை மெச்சினார்) meaning ‘Praised by Thirumala’ as their family name.

Consequently, the first play performed during the drama festival would always invariably be Abhimanyu Sundari performed exclusively by members of the Thirumalai mechinaar families

A drama peformed acon stage at Valayankulam (Source: dhinasari.com)
A drama performed on stage at Valayankulam Village (Source: dhinasari.com)

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Every year the drama festival begins on Maha Sivarathri or ‘Great Night of Shiva’,  a Hindu festival celebrated annually in reverence to mark the marriage of Lord Shiva and goddess Parvati – the convergence of Shiva and Shakti. From that day onwards the villagers enact a drama daily for 100 days without any interruption.

Drama "Valli Thirumanam, " performed at Valayankulam Thanilinga Perumal temple..(Source: Facebook/Art and Cultural Rights of Folk Artists)
Drama “Valli Thirumanam, ” performed at Valayankulam Thanilinga Perumal temple..(Source: Facebook/Art and Cultural Rights of Folk Artists)

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The villagers believe that if anyone prays to their deity and pledges to stage a drama, the deity would hearken to their prayers. The villagers of Valayankulam boast that barren couples who pray for issues would come to the temple the following year with their offsprings and offer their thanks by sponsoring a drama.

A drama performed on stage at Valayankulam (Source: dhinasari.com) - 2
A drama peformed on stage at Valayankulam Village ( Source: dhinasari.com)

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Flaming Torches brought by the villagers from the village square to the stage.
Flaming Torches brought by the villagers from the village square to the stage.

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In the past, when there was no electricity, the villagers lit the stage using flaming torches. Hence even now, to uphold the tradition, the villagers carry flaming torches from the village square to the stage with pomp and ceremony before the day’s play begins. When the torch bearers reach the stage, the pujari or archaka (priest) performs special ceremonies in the temple.

Audience watching a drama peformed on stage at Valayankulam (Source: dhinasari.com)
Audience watching a drama performed on stage at Valayankulam (Source: dhinasari.com)

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View of the stage from the sanctum sanctorum of Thaanaai mulaitha Thanilinga Perumal (தானாய் முளைத்த தனிலிங்கப் பெருமாள்)
View of the stage from the sanctum sanctorum of Thaanaai mulaitha Thanilinga Perumal (தானாய் முளைத்த தனிலிங்கப் பெருமாள்)

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After paying the due respects to the seniors of the village, the play will begin at 10:00 pm and will proceed till 5:00 am the following day. The pujari keeps the door of the sanctum sanctorum open during this time for the deity to view the play.

The drama festivities will culminate on Chithra Fullmoon Day followed by a banquet for people belonging to all castes.

The minimum cost of staging a play by mediocre actors would amount to  ₹25,000 and might go up to ₹60,000 to ₹1,00,000 if performed by cinema actors. Almost all Tamil drama actors and artisans connected with the dramatic art have performed or taken part on the stage at Valayankulam before the deity Thanilinga Perumal.

Staging a play at Valayankulam whenever one likes is not easy as anyone might think. Devotees who have pledged to sponsor a play have to pay ₹100 and wait in a long queue for at least a year to stage it on a stipulated date.

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Note: I gleaned most of the above details from the article published in dhinasari.com written in Tamil titled, “வருடத்தில் 100 நாட்கள் நாடகம் நடைபெறும் கிராமம்” (“A village where dramas are performed 100 days per year”) by Mr. S.P. Senthilkumar, a reputed Tamil journalist from Madurai, Tamilnadu, India.

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A Thanks Giving Day story: The Letter Addressed to God.


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Myself 

By T.V. Antony Raj

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A still from the film "Slumdog Millionaire"
A still from the film “Slumdog Millionaire”

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A few days ago, during the incessant rain and floods in Chennai, Tamilnadu, India, a little boy wanted 100 rupees to buy food for his family who had not eaten for two days. He prayed to God. When nothing happened and no one officially came to help them, he decided to write a request letter to God.

A puzzled post office staff on seeing the letter addressed to God forwarded it to the Chief Minister.

The amused Chief Minister thought that 100 rupees would be a lot of money for a little boy to buy food. So, she instructed her secretary to send the little boy 30 rupees instead from the Chief Minister’s relief fund.

When the little boy received the money he was delighted. He wrote the following ‘Thank you’ letter to the CM:

Dear God, I thank you for sending me money through the Chief Minister’s Office Secretariat in Chennai. However, I would like you to know that corrupt asses there must have swindled 70 rupees as their commission! “

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RELATED IMAGES

Images of floods in Chennai in November 2015 (google.co.in)

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Chennai floods and the aftermath (thehindu.com)

The Elderly Hindi Typist of Lucknow and His Typewriter


Myself

By T.V. Antony Raj

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Ashutosh Tripathi
Ashutosh Tripathi, Journalist.

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Young Ashutosh Tripathi wanted to join the army, but his parents would not allow it. So, in 2011, he opted for journalism. Soon he realized that he was in the worst profession as some people who had taken to journalism as a career were earning as low as ₹ 2000 per month. However, some seniors encouraged him and said that someday he will feel glad that he chose the media, the fourth pillar of democracy, as his vocation.

Saturday, October 10, 2015, proved to be the lucky day for the news hungry Ashutosh. In the morning, while having breakfast at an eatery near the General Post Office (GPO) in Lucknow, he saw police sub-inspector Pradeep Kumar violating traffic rules by riding a motorbike on the bicycle track. He then saw the police officer kick a milk container of a vendor selling tea on the pavement. The budding journalist thought the action of the policeman was newsworthy.

When the sub-inspector started threatening the vendors and others plying their trade on the pavement outside the GPO and ordered them to leave, Ashutosh started clicking his camera for he wanted to expose the  brutality of the Lucknow Police.

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Sub-InspectorPradeep Kumar kicking the typewriter (Photo: Ashutosh Tripathi)
Sub-InspectorPradeep Kumar kicking the typewriter (Photo: Ashutosh Tripathi)

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While everyone left, the 65-year-old Kishan Kumar, a frail typist who has been doing Hindi typing outside the General Post Office for the past 35 years was slow to leave. The irate police officer kicked the old man’s typewriter.

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Sub-InspectorPradeep Kumar smashing the typewriter into the ground (Photo: Ashutosh Tripathi)
Sub-InspectorPradeep Kumar smashing the typewriter into the ground (Photo: Ashutosh Tripathi)

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With tears flowing down his cheeks, the elderly man collected the parts of his typewriter and tried to put them together. The sub-inspector then snatched the typewriter from the poor man who then with folded hands besieged the officer to spare his machine. But the arrogant policeman threw it on the road smashing it.

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Kishan Kumar picking up the parts of the damaged typewriter (Photo - Ashutosh Tripathi)
Kishan Kumar picking up the parts of the damaged typewriter (Photo – Ashutosh Tripathi).

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Sobbing, with tears hiding his sight, the old typist started collecting the pieces of his mangled typewriter.

When the sub-inspector saw Ashutosh taking photos of the incident he objected and ordered him to delete them. Ashutosh was bold and interjected. He asked the police officer how he could do this to an elderly citizen. The sub-inspector told him not to teach him but to do his job.

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Pradeep Kumar, the Police Officer who damaged Kishan Kumar's typewriter (Photo - Ashutosh Tripathi)

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As Ashutosh continued taking photos, the stubborn sub-inspector told Ashutosh that he could show the photos to anyone and even posed for him.

Ashutosh comforted the sobbing elderly typist who told him the machine was completely damaged and it was the source of his income.

Ashutosh Tripathi wrote the story for the newspaper Dainik Bhaskar where he worked. He also shared the story on Facebook hoping someone might take note of the incident and get the typewriter of the old man repaired.

After a while when Ashutosh logged into Facebook he saw his story had gone viral. Ashutosh’s brother tweeted the photos on Twitter which many celebrities retweeted.

Akhilesh Yadav, chief minister of Uttar Pradesh state, took note of this incident and ordered the suspension of the sub-inspector. He offered financial help for Kishan Kumar and gave orders to replace the damaged typewriter.

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Mr. Rajesh Pandey, SSP and Mr. Raj Shekhar, the District Magistrate of Lucknow presenting a new typewriter to Kishan Kumar
Mr. Rajesh Pandey, SSP and Mr. Raj Shekhar, the District Magistrate of Lucknow presenting a new typewriter to Kishan Kumar.

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Mr. Rajesh Pandey, SSP and Mr. Raj Shekhar, the District Magistrate of Lucknow met Kishan in person and tendered an apology for the police officer’s misbehaviour. They also presented him a new typewriter.

On Monday, two days after the incident, Kishan Kumar was threatened over the phone. The caller said that he had done a “bad thing”. After the threat call, the police have provided the necessary security to Kishan Kumar and are probing the threat call.

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The Giant Atlas Moth


Myself

By T.V. Antony Raj

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Giant Atlas Moth (Source: wwb.co.uk)
Giant Atlas Moth (Source: wwb.co.uk)

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The family Saturniidae, known as saturniids, include the largest species of moths.  They belong to the order Lepidoptera, with an estimated 2,300 described species worldwide. The saturniids include such Lepidoptera as the Atlas moth (Attacus atlas), the polyphemus moth (Antheraea polyphemus) also known as the giant Silkmoth, the imperial moth (Eacles imperialis), and the regal moth (Citheronia regalis) also called the royal walnut moth.

While the saturniids are lightweights compared to other insects, they can grow to some impressive sizes. The adult saturniids are large in size, with their heavy bodies covered in hairlike scales and lobed wings. The hind wings overlap the forewings, giving the effect of an unbroken wing surface. They have small heads with reduced mouth parts. Some species are often colored bright, which may mislead first-time observers to refer to them as butterflies. Female are larger and weigh more than the males. In general, the males have a larger, broader antennae.

Today, I came across the above video of an Atlas moth, found in the tropical and subtropical forests of Southeast Asia and the Malay archipelago.

Atlas moths have large wingspans about 10 inches across (25cm). A record specimen of the tropical Atlas moth from Java measured 10.3 inches (262 mm), with a surface area of 62 square inches (400 square cm).

While skimming the internet, I came across the following lines in Chinese:

不知何時窗邊飛來這隻不速之客
展開的翅膀像是雙頭蛇
喜歡的人或許覺得牠很美
從小就對蛾類敬而遠之的自己
卻只敢瞇著眼睛不敢正視呢
– 蛇頭蛾, 三義

Bùzhī héshí chuāng biān fēi lái zhè zhī bùsùzhīkè
zhǎnkāi de chìbǎng xiàng shì shuāng tóu shé
xǐhuān de rén huòxǔ juédé tā hěn měi
cóngxiǎo jiù duì é lèi jìng’éryuǎnzhī dì zìjǐ
què zhǐ gǎn mī zhuó yǎnjīng bù gǎn zhèngshì ne
– shétóu é, sānyì

I do not know when the window flew only uninvited guest
Spread wings like a two-headed snake
Like people may think it is beautiful
I grew up on the moths themselves at arm’s length
But only dared to squint afraid to face it
– Snakeheads moth, Sanyi

Though the name Atlas moths derived from either the Titan of Greek mythology for their gigantic size or their map-like wing patterns seems appropriate, the Chinese name 蛇頭蛾 (shétóu é) meaning “snakeheads moth” is more pertinent in referring to the  outer tips of the  spread wings  that look like a two-headed snake.

Though the name Atlas moths derived from either the Titan of Greek mythology for their gigantic size or their map-like wing patterns seems appropriate, the Chinese name 蛇頭蛾 (shétóu é) meaning “snakeheads moth” is more pertinent in referring to the outer tips of the wings that look like the head of a snake.

Life Cycle of the Atlas moth
Mating

The Atlas moths are wobbly fliers. After emerging from the cocoon, the female does not stray far from her discarded cocoon. She seeks a perch conducive for the air currents to carry the strong pheromones released by her. The male Atlas moths sensing the pheromones with the chemoreceptors located on their large feathery antennae home in on the sexually passive female.

Embryo

After mating, the female Atlas moth lays many spherical eggs about 2.5 mm in diameter on the undersides of leaves.

Larval stage

About two weeks later, dusty-green caterpillars adorned with fleshy spines along their backs covered in a waxy white substance hatch from the eggs.

Giant Atlas moth caterpillars (Source: cambstimes.co.uk)
Giant Atlas moth caterpillars (Source: cambstimes.co.uk)

The caterpillars feed voraciously on the foliage of certain citrus trees. Alternative recorded foodplants include leaves of apple, ash, cherry, lilac, plum, willows, and other evergreen trees.

Pupal stage

On reaching a length of about 4.5 inches (115 mm), the caterpillars pupate within a papery cocoon interwoven into desiccated leaves. The adult moths emerge after about four weeks.

Imago – the adult stage

After spending about a month in their cocoons, Atlas Moths emerge as beautiful, sexually mature winged creatures. Unfortunately, this imago stage is short-lived and the moths die within a week or two after spreading their wings.

The following video shows in detail the development of the Atlas Moths: the hatched larvae from eggs, the various stages of the caterpillar, molting,  pupating, and the emergence of the adult Atlas moth.

The cocoons of the Atlas Moths serve as purses in Taiwan.

Some sericulturists in India cultivate Atlas moths for their silk. Unlike the silk produced by the Silkworm moth (Bombyx mori), the brown, wool-like silk secretes as broken strands from the cocoons of the Atlas moth. This silk known as fagara silk seems to have greater durability.

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Paduka – The Footwear Once Worn by Men and Women in India


Myself

By T.V. Antony Raj

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The centuries-old Hindu, Buddhist and Jain scriptures trace the use of footwear in India way back to 200 BC. Coins of the Kushan period (130 BC to 185 AD) and the Gupta period (320 to 550 AD) feature kings wearing boots.

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Kapula (Source: ehow.co.uk)
Kapula (Source: ehow.co.uk)

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From ancient times, wearing leather footwear was taboo in India because the Hindus consider the cow as sacred; and so, the use of sandals made of wood, plant  fibres, and metals was in vogue.

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The Sun god at Guda Mandap at the Sun Temple, Modhera (Source: wikimedia.org)
The Sun god at Guda Mandap at the Sun Temple, Modhera (Source: wikimedia.org)

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In the 11th century Sun temple at Modhera, Gujarat, the sun god wears a distinctive West Asian belt and lengthy footwear. And, in the 13th century Dakshinaarka temple at Gaya in the state of Bihar in India, the presiding deity Dakshinaarka, the Sun God wears a jacket, a waist girdle and high boots in the Iranian tradition.

The term paduka is a compound word made up of two Sanskrit words Namely, “pada” (foot) and “ka“, a diminutive ending literally meaning “small”.

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Paduka, Garamur Sutra (Source: majulilandscape. Gov. in)
Paduka, Garamur Sutra (Source: majulilandscape. gov. in)

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The paduka has a sole with a post and knob. The wearer of the paduka grips the post and knob between their big and second toe to  keep the foot in place.

Since the paduka do not have straps of any kind to keep them adhered to the feet, it must have been difficult to walk wearing them. The wearers would have dragged their feet along the ground accompanied by funny movements of their hips.

Paduka from the 1800s, with bone and ivory inlay in sheesham wood (Source: indiapiedaterredotcom.wordpress.com)
Paduka from the 1800s, with bone and ivory inlay in sheesham wood (Source: indiapiedaterredotcom.wordpress.com)

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Fine teak, ebony and sandalwood went into the making of the paduka for the affluent embellished with leather and fur. Large floral and leaf motifs were carved and embedded or inlaid with beads, stones, crystals,  ivory, and metals such as copper, bronze and iron.

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Fish shaped paduka inlaid with brass, and part of the Bata Shoe Museum collection, Toronoto, Canada (Source: indiapiedaterredotcom.wordpress.com)
Fish shaped paduka inlaid with brass, and part of the Bata Shoe Museum collection, Toronoto, Canada (Source: indiapiedaterredotcom.wordpress.com)

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The paduka took on a variety of forms such as the actual shape of feet, or of fish (a symbol of fertility and plenty in India), or animals.

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An antique wedding silver and gold over wood, toe-knob paduka, of the 1800s exhibited in the Victoria and Albert Musueum, London.
An antique wedding silver and gold over wood, toe-knob paduka, of the 1800s exhibited in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

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In ancient times, decorated and expensive paduka formed a part of an Indian bride’s trousseau.

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A Pandit woman wearing paduka ca.1922 (Source: wikimedia.org)
A Pandit woman wearing paduka ca.1922 (Source: wikimedia.org)

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Some commoners too wore paduka, but of a simpler design.

Even today, a few Hindu and Jain ascetics and mendicants wear the paduka.

Spiked wooden Paduka of late 19th Century (Source: shoesornoshoes.com)
Spiked wooden Paduka of late 19th Century (Source: shoesornoshoes.com)

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Some masochistic Hindu ascetics wore spiked paduka for inflicting pain on themselves as an aid to performing penance.

Paduka in Hindu mythology

On certain occasions, the paduka became the object of veneration in Hindu mythology. It is significant in the epic Ramayana.

Queen Kaikeyi, mother of Bharata, at the behest of Manthara, the ugly hunchbacked, antagonistic maid, beseeched her husband, King Dasaratha to exile her step son Rama, whom she loved dearly, for 14 years and crown her own son Bharata as prince-regent.

Prince Rama, his consort princess Sita, and his step-brother, prince Laksmana went into a forest to spend their period of exile. But the good prince Bharata, who loved his older step-brother Rama, did not want to become the prince-regent. So, he met Rama on his way to the deep forest and entreated him to return to Ayodhya. When Rama told Bharata that he will return only after completing his fourteen years in the forest, Bharata requested Rama to give him his paduka to serve as an object of veneration for the subjects of the kingdom.

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Guler painting (c. 1780 AD) of Bharata Worshiping the Sandals of his beloved step-brother Rama.
Haripur Guler painting (c. 1780 AD) of Bharata Worshiping the Sandals of his beloved step-brother Rama.

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Bharata carried Rama’s pair of paduka with great reverence by placing them on his head as a mark of respect and obedience to his elder brother.  Bharata installed Rama’s  pair of  paduka on the throne and ruled the kingdom of Kosala as Rama’s proxy.

High-heeled footwear

High-heeled footwear now known as platforms did not come into our lives in the 1970’s. Our ancestors wore them in India several centuries before.

At the archaeological site at Chandraketugarh, about 35 km north-east of Kolkata, footwear with raised heel and floral motifs used around 200 BC were found.

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Indian paduka (Source: fabulousplatformshoes.com)
Indian paduka (Source: fabulousplatformshoes.com)
The sculpture at the  Ramappa Temple in Warangal

The Ramalingeswara temple also known as Ramappa gudi  is located 77 km from Warangal  and 157 km from Hyderabad. Here one can find  850 years old sculptures.

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Fashionable ladies in India wore high heels 850 years ago exemplified in a sculpture at Ramappa Temple in Warangal, Telangana, India.
Fashionable ladies in India wore high heels 850 years ago exemplified in a sculpture at Ramappa Temple in Warangal, Telangana, India.

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The above sculpture in the Ramappa Temple exemplifies the fact that fashionable ladies in India wore high-heeled paduka.

The elevated paduka must have helped the ladies to give the illusion that they were much taller than what they were!

Again,  there could have been a more practical reason – to keep their feet and clothing clean!

The elevated paduka must have helped the ladies to give the illusion that they were much taller than what they were!

Again, there could have been a more practical reason; maybe to keep their feet and clothing clean!

By the way, from ancient times, Sudras, the low caste people in India, were not allowed to wear any type of footwear on public roads. They had to carry them in their hands. One can see this phenomenon even now in many villages in India.

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RELATED ARTICLES

The Hanging Column in the Veerabhadra Temple in Lepakshi, AP, India


Myself

By T.V. Antony Raj

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Lepakshi is a small village in the Anantapur District in Andhra Pradesh, India. It is about 9 miles (15 km) east of Hindupur and about 75 miles (120 km) north of Bangalore.

This village is historically and archaeologically significant. It has three shrines dedicated to the Hindu gods Shiva, Vishnu and Veerabhadra built during the period of Vijayanagara Kings (1336–1646).

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The Hanging Column in the Veerabhadra temple at Lepakshi, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India (Source: images.worthview.com)
The Hanging Column in the Veerabhadra temple at Lepakshi, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India (Source: images.worthview.com)

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The famous 16th-century Veerabhadra stone temple constructed in Vijayanagar style has about 70 pillars, but only one of these pillars is best known as the Aakaasa Sthambha (Hanging Column). It is a tribute to the engineering genius of the temple builders of medieval India. The pillar does not rest on the ground fully.

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The Hanging Column in the Veerabhadra temple at Lepakshi, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India.
The Hanging Column in the Veerabhadra temple at Lepakshi, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. (Source: wikimapia.org)

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Cloth under the Hanging Column in the Veerabhadra temple at Lepakshi, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Cloth under the Hanging Column in the Veerabhadra temple at Lepakshi, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

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A cloth can slide smoothly underneath this Hanging pillar.

During the British era, a British engineer tried to move it to uncover the secret of its support. His attempt was unsuccessful and the pillar got slightly dislodged from its original position.

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RELATED ARTICLES

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Miracles Do Happen Even in This Kaliyug.


Myself

By T.V. Antony Raj

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A Mother and daughter in Chennai (This picture was posted on Facebook)
A Mother and daughter in Chennai (This picture was posted on Facebook)

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In  the early hours of August 8, 2015, around 6:30 am,  a  walking group called “Twalkers” saw a mother and her daughter carrying a travelling bag at the Anna University Campus in Chennai,

The Twalkers saw them still standing in the same spot when they came around the second time. They inquired why they were standing there in the early hours.

Thangaponnu, the mother told them that she was a shepherdess from Musiri, a Panchayat town in the Tiruchirapalli district. Her daughter R. Swathi had scored 1017/1200 marks in her Plus Two examinations. After applying for entrance to B.Sc. Agriculture course, her daughter had been asked to come to Anna Arangam, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, to attend the counseling session ahead of the admissions process to B. Sc. Agriculture, scheduled to start at 8:30 am. She showed the letter received by her daughter from the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU).

On scrutinizing that letter,  the Twalkers saw the mistake. TNAU had directed Swathi to present herself at The Anna Arangam, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, in Coimbatore, but some people had  inadvertently misdirected them to Anna University, Chennai.

When the mother and daughter realized their mistake, they lost hope of reaching Coimbatore in time because the distance between Chennai and Coimbatore by road is 533 km (331 miles) and would take around 8 hours to travel.When the mother and daughter realized the mistake, they lost hope.

Since the counseling was to start at 8.30 a.m. in Coimbatore, the Twalkers decided to help the girl and her mother reach Coimbatore by air flight. The Twalkers decided to share the flight cost of ₹10,500.

Some Twalkers teaching at the Anna University, spoke to TNAU registrar C.R. Ananda Kumar, and explained to him the situation and asked for extra time for the girl candidate.

The Twalkers brought breakfast for the girl and her mother.

Once the flight tickets were booked and confirmed, the Twalkers took Swathi and her mother to the Chennai airport to board the 10:05 am Coimbatore flight.

The flight Swathi and her mother were on landed at 11:28 am in Coimbatore. Arrangements were made to pick them at the Coimbatore airport. They reached the TNAU counseling venue by 12:15 pm.

Around 2:00 pm Swathi got admitted to B.Tech. (Biotechnology).

Swathi and her mother are now planning to visit Chennai again soon to meet the Twalkers who had spontaneously helped and thank them. The mother said that they would return the money the Twalkers had spent to buy their flight tickets.

Isn’t this incidence a miracle in this Kaliyug.

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RELATED ARTICLES

What Do People in the IT Companies Really Do?


Myself

By T.V. Antony Raj

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Sometimes back I came across on Facebook the following thought-provoking conversation between a father and his son working for an IT company. It was in Tamil. I have embellished it for your reading pleasure.

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Source:- pronetusa.biz
Source:- pronetusa.biz

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Dad: “By the way, what do people working in IT companies do?”

Son: “Why do you ask?”

Dad: “Because I see them strutting about like the peacocks – aloof and serious.”

Son: “Appa (Dad), do you include me also in your remark?”

Dad: “In a way, yes. Is it because you guys earn hefty salaries?”

Son: “Appa, these westerners, especially the Americans, want everything done in a jiffy. And, for this, they are ready to spend any amount.”

Dad: “Yes. Yes. Loaded as they are, they can afford to spend on such things.”

Son: Almost all companies and banks in the US, UK, and other European countries are ready to spend any amount to develop software  to do this thing or that thing. We call them ‘clients’.”

Dad: “OK”.

Son: “The IT companies have their offices and personnel in those countries to sniff out such clients who are ready to dole out heavy amounts. We call such personnel ‘Pre-Sales Consultants’, ‘Sales Consultants, etc.”

Dad: “What do your sniffers do?”

Son: “On approaching a potential client, our consultants will first introduce our company. They will highlight the pros where we excel more than our competitors.”

Dad: “So, your consultants will cast the bait and wait for the fish to bite!”

Son: “Yes. While nibbling the bait, the potential client will ask 1001 questions. They will want to know whether we can do this, do that and so on.”

Dad: “And…”

Son: “Our Consultants will assert that our programmers can develop whatever they want. They will eulogize the members of our IT personnel as demigods who can create any kind of software for quick and efficient conduct of their business.”

Dad: “Then, you are a demigod?”

Son:  “Hired as consultants at exorbitant salaries, it is their duty to say so.”

Dad: “What educational qualifications should a consultant have?”

Son: “Most of them are highly qualified MBA, MS, and such other degree holders.”

Dad: “What! Do you need people with such high qualifications to just say ‘can do’?”

Son: “Yes. Their qualifications carry much-needed weight to inveigle a potential client.”

Dad: “And then what? Will the potential client transform into a loyal client?”

Son: “Appa, it is a bit difficult to predict. There is a lot of competition in the IT field. Like our firm, other IT companies in India and other eastern countries too would have approached the potential client.

Dad: “So, how will you secure the project?”

Son: “Here comes the power of persuasion. Our consultants will promise the potential client that members of our software development team being demigods would complete their project in 60 days what in reality would take more than a year to complete.”

Dad: “How can a project that would take a year to complete be accomplished in just two months? Would it be possible even if they work 24 hours a day? Doesn’t the promise amount to cheating?”

Son: “I won’t  call it cheating because, during those 60 days, the client would be hazy about what the real needs are, neither will we be. Even so, we will deliver ‘a completed project’ in 60 days.”

Dad: “Then what will happen?”

Son: “The client will moan and say ‘This is not what we wanted’. They will then demand  that we incorporate this, that, and so forth.”

Dad: “And, then…”

Son: “Our consultants will ask them to raise a ‘CR’.”

Dad: “A CR?”

Son: “Change Request.”

Dad: “What does that mean?”

Son: “Our consultants will tell the client that during the stipulated 60 days our company had accomplished work for the amount paid, and if the client requires anything else, then the client will have to pay extra.”

Dad: “Will the client agree?”

Son: “Yes. The client has to agree. Can you face the world with a half-done haircut?”

Dad: “Ok. Now tell me what your company does once they secure a project.”

Son: “First, we will form a team for the project. A Project Manager will head the team.”

Dad: “That means, the person appointed as the Project Manager will know every aspect of that project.”

Son: “Not at all. The Project Manager knows nothing of what the programmers under him do.”

Dad: “If so, what is his work?”

Son: “If any of us make a mistake, we will point our finger at the Project Manager. He is the proverbial Redeemer, ‘The lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world‘, the martyr, and the scapegoat. He is always under stress wondering who in the team might be next trying to bury him. “

Dad: “Poor fellow.”

Son: “The success or failure of a project is in the hands of the Project ManagerIf it is a success, the team gets the accolade, but if it fails, then he gets the boot. “

Dad: “I pity the poor soul.”

Son: “If we have any problems, we approach him.”

Dad: “Will he solve your problems?”

Son: “What! Solve our problems? Never. The company pays him to shake his head in the affirmative and mumble, ‘I fully understand your problem‘. It’s like you shake your head before Amma (mom).”

Dad: “I am glad to know that you at least accept me as the manager of this house. Carry on.”

Son: “Under the Project Manager are the Tech Lead, Model Lead, Program Developers, Software Testers, etc.)”

Dad: “You come under the category of…”

Son: “Developer. Most developers are from Tamilnadu, Andhra, and Karnataka.”

Dad: “What do the Testers do?”

Son: “The sole object of the Testers is to find fault with the work of the developers.”

Dad: “What! Your company pays Testers to find fault in the work of others?”

Son: “Yes.”

Dad: “So, with the combined efforts of all these staff, the project would be easy to complete, isn’t it?”

Son: “It’s not so. Only the developers and the testers work. Others, from my point of view, just idle.”

Dad: “Will you complete the project before the due date?”

Son: “Of course not. It would be a shame if we complete the work by the due date and it would rather be better to commit suicide because the management would think the work is just simple and start the process of retrenching.”

Dad: “But, won’t the client question the company about the time lag in completing the project?”

Son: “Yes. The client will! But, we will counter the client by saying, the computers they gave us were dusty; their staff coughed during the team meets infecting our staff; inclement weather; unpleasant working environment; toilets not clean;  cobwebs on the ceiling, etc., and flabergast the client.”

Dad: “And then…”

Son: “The confused client, with no other option left, will give us some more time to finish the project.”

Dad: “And will you complete the project in time and hand  it over to the client?”

Son: “Not at all. If we do that, then half the computer savvy people in our country will have to beg on the streets.”

Dad: “So?”

Son: “A few weeks before handing over the completed project, we will stage a scene before the client. We will throw a hint that we had accomplished something stupendous in our project that only our developers could understand and manage.”

Dad: “And?”

Son: “Like a new bride, the flabergasted client will beg us to not to leave and will request us to provide them a few of our developers who could stay with them to run and take care of the project. This additional process called ‘Maintenance and Support‘ will be an ongoing project for years to come.”

Dad: “Now, I understand the workings and strategies of an IT company. It’s not only marrying a woman, but also maintaining her for an indefinite period in the future!”

Son: “Yes, Appa.”

Cricket: Pepsi IPL 2015 (IPL 8) Tournament Schedule


Myself

By T.V. Antony Raj

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The Teams
CSK (Custom) DD (Custom) KXI (Custom) KKR (Custom)
MI (Custom) RR (Custom) RCB (Custom) SH (Custom)

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Team Captains
IPL Captains (Source: iplt20.com)
IPL Captains (Source: iplt20.com)

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 Pepsi IPL 2015 (IPL 8) Tournament Schedule
Match 1
Wednesday,
8th April 2015

Match 51 (Custom)
Mumbai Indians
vs Kolkata Knight Riders
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Eden Gardens,
Kolkata.
Match 2
Thursday,
9th April 2015
 Match 2 (Custom) Chennai Super Kings
vs Delhi Daredevils
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Chidambaram Stadium, Chennai.
Match 3
Friday,
10th April 2015
 Match 3 (Custom) Kings XI Punjab
vs Rajasthan Royals
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
MCA International Stadium, Pune.
Match 4
Saturday,
11th April 2015
 Match 4 (Custom) Chennai Super Kings
vs Sunrisers Hyderabad
4:00 pm IST (10:30 GMT)
Chidambaram Stadium,
Chennai.
Match 5
Saturday,
11th April 2015
 Match 5 (Custom) Kolkata Knight Riders
vs Royal Challengers Bangalore
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Eden Gardens,
Kolkata.
Match 6
Sunday,
12th April 2015
 Match 6 (Custom) Delhi Daredevils
vs Rajasthan Royals
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Ferozeshah Kotla,
Delhi.
Match 7
Sunday,
12th April 2015
 Match 7 (Custom) Mumbai Indians
vs Kings XI Punjab
4:00 pm IST (10:30 GMT)
Wankhede Stadium,
Mumbai.
Match 8
Monday,
13th April 2015
 Match 8 (Custom) Royal Challengers Bangalore
vs Sunrisers Hyderabad
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Chinnaswamy Stadium, Bengaluru.
Match 9
Tuesday,
14th April 2015
 Match 9 (Custom) Rajasthan Royals
vs Mumbai Indians
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Sardar Patel Stadium, Ahmedabad.
Match 10
Wednesday,
15th April 2015
 Match 10 (Custom) Kings XI Punjab
vs Delhi Daredevils
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
MCA International Stadium, Pune.
Match 11
Thursday,
16th April 2015
 Match 11 (Custom) Sunrisers Hyderabad
vs Rajasthan Royals
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
ACA-VDCA Stadium, Visakhapatnam.
Match 12
Friday,
17th April 2015
 Match 12 (Custom) Mumbai Indians
vs Chennai Super Kings
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Wankhede Stadium,
Mumbai.
Match 13
Saturday,
18th April 2015
 Match 13 (Custom) Sunrisers Hyderabad
vs Delhi Daredevils
4:00 pm IST (10:30 GMT)
ACA-VDCA Stadium,
Visakhapatnam.
Match 14
Saturday,
18th April 2015
 Match 14 (Custom) Kings XI Punjab
vs Kolkata Knight Riders
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
MCA International Stadium, Pune.
Match 15
Sunday,
19th April 2015
 Match 15 (Custom) Rajasthan Royals
vs Chennai Super Kings
4:00 pm IST (10:30 GMT)
Sardar Patel Stadium, Ahmedabad.
Match 16
Sunday,
19th April 2015
 Match 16 (Custom) Royal Challengers Bangalore
vs Mumbai Indians
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Chinnaswamy Stadium, Bengaluru.
Match 17
Monday,
20th April 2015
 Match 17 (Custom) Delhi Daredevils
vs Kolkata Knight Riders
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Ferozeshah Kotla,
Delhi.
Match 18
Tuesday,
21st April 2015
 Match 18 (Custom) Rajasthan Royals
vs Kings XI Punjab
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Sardar Patel Stadium,
Ahmedabad.
Match 19
Wednesday,
22nd April 2015
 Match 19 (Custom) Sunrisers Hyderabad
vs Kolkata Knight Riders
4:00 pm IST (10:30 GMT)
ACA-VDCA Stadium,
Visakhapatnam.
Match 20
Wednesday,
22nd April 2015
 Match 20 (Custom) Royal Challengers Bangalore
vs Chennai Super Kings
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Chinnaswamy Stadium,
Bengaluru.
Match 21
Thursday,
23rd April 2015
 Match 21 (Custom) Delhi Daredevils
vs Mumbai Indians
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Ferozeshah Kotla,
Delhi.
Match 22
Friday,
24th April 2015
 Match 22 (Custom) Rajasthan Royals
vs Royal Challengers Bangalore
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Sardar Patel Stadium,
Ahmedabad.
Match 23
Saturday,
25th April 2015
 Match 23 (Custom) Mumbai Indians
vs Sunrisers Hyderabad
4:00 pm IST (10:30 GMT)
Wankhede Stadium,
Mumbai.
Match 24
Saturday,
25th April 2015
 Match 24 (Custom) Chennai Super Kings
vs Kings XI Punjab
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Chidambaram Stadium,
Chennai.
Match 25
Sunday,
26th April 2015
 Match 25 (Custom) Kolkata Knight Riders
vs Rajasthan Royals
4:00 pm IST (10:30 GMT)
Eden Gardens,
Kolkata.
Match 26
Sunday,
26th April 2015
 Match 26 (Custom) Delhi Daredevils
vs Royal Challengers Bangalore
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Ferozeshah Kotla,
Delhi.
Match 27
Monday,
27th April 2015
 Match 27 (Custom) Kings XI Punjab
vs Sunrisers Hyderabad
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Punjab Cricket Association
Stadium,
Mohali.
Match 28
Tuesday,
28th April 2015
 Match 28 (Custom) Chennai Super Kings
vs Kolkata Knight Riders
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Chidambaram Stadium,
Chennai.
Match 29
Wednesday,
29th April 2015
 Match 29 (Custom) Royal Challengers Bangalore
vs Rajasthan Royals
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Chinnaswamy Stadium,
Bengaluru.
Match 30
Thursday,
30th April 2015
 Match 30 (Custom) Kolkata Knight Riders
vs Chennai Super Kings
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Eden Gardens,
Kolkata.
Match 31
Friday,
1st May 2015
 Match 31 (Custom) Delhi Daredevils
vs Kings XI Punjab
4:00 pm IST (10:30 GMT)
Ferozeshah Kotla,
Delhi.
Match 32
Friday,
1st May 2015
 Match 32 (Custom) Mumbai Indians
vs Rajasthan Royals
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Wankhede Stadium,
Mumbai.
Match 33
Saturday,
2nd May 2015
 Match 33 (Custom) Royal Challengers Bangalore
vs Kolkata Knight Riders
4:00 pm IST (10:30 GMT)
Chinnaswamy Stadium,
Bengaluru.
Match 34
Saturday,
2nd May 2015
 Match 34 (Custom) Sunrisers Hyderabad
vs Chennai Super Kings
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium,
Hyderabad.
Match 35
Sunday,
3rd May 2015
 Match 35 (Custom) Kings XI Punjab
vs Mumbai Indians
4:00 pm IST (10:30 GMT)
Punjab Cricket Association Stadium,
Mohali.
Match 36
Sunday,
3rd May 2015
 Match 36 (Custom) Rajasthan Royals
vs Delhi Daredevils
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Brabourne Stadium,
Mumbai
Match 37
Monday,
4th May 2015
 Match 37 (Custom) Chennai Super Kings
vs Royal Challengers Bangalore
4:00 pm IST (10:30 GMT) 
Chidambaram Stadium,
Chennai.
Match 38
Monday,
4th May 2015
 Match 38 (Custom) Kolkata Knight Riders
vs Sunrisers Hyderabad
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Eden Gardens,
Kolkata.
Match 39
Tuesday,
5th May 2015
 Match 39 (Custom) Mumbai Indians
vs Delhi Daredevils
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Wankhede Stadium,
Mumbai.
Match 40
Wednesday,
6th May 2015
 Match 40 (Custom) Royal Challengers Bangalore
vs Kings XI Punjab
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Chinnaswamy Stadium,
Bengaluru.
Match 41
Thursday,
7th May 2015
 Match 41 (Custom) Rajasthan Royals
vs Sunrisers Hyderabad
4:00 pm IST (10:30 GMT)
Brabourne Stadium,
Mumbai
Match 42
Thursday,
7th May 2015
 Match 42 (Custom) Kolkata Knight Riders
vs Delhi Daredevils
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Eden Gardens,
Kolkata.
Match 43
Friday,
8th May 2015
 Match 43 (Custom) Chennai Super Kings
vs Mumbai Indians
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Chidambaram Stadium,
Chennai.
Match 44
Saturday,
9th May 2015
 Match 44 (Custom) Kolkata Knight Riders
vs Kings XI Punjab
4:00 pm IST (10:30 GMT)
Eden Gardens,
Kolkata.
Match 45
Saturday,
9th May 2015
 Match 45 (Custom) Delhi Daredevils
vs Sunrisers Hyderabad
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Chhattisgarh International Cricket Stadium,
Raipur.
Match 46
Sunday,
10th May 2015
 Match 46 (Custom) Mumbai Indians
vs Royal Challengers Bangalore
4:00 pm IST (10:30 GMT)
Wankhede Stadium,
Mumbai.
Match 47
Sunday,
10th May 2015
 Match 47 (Custom) Chennai Super Kings
vs Rajasthan Royals
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Chidambaram Stadium,
Chennai.
Match 48
Monday,
11th May 2015
 Match 48 (Custom) Sunrisers Hyderabad
vs Kings XI Punjab
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium,
Hyderabad.
Match 49
Tuesday,
12th May 2015
 Match 49 (Custom) Delhi Daredevils
vs Chennai Super Kings
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Chhattisgarh International Cricket Stadium,
Raipur.
Match 50
Wednesday,
13th May 2015
 Match 50 (Custom) Kings XI Punjab
vs Royal Challengers Bangalore
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT) 
Punjab Cricket Association Stadium,
Mohali.
Match 51
Thursday,
14th May 2015
 Match 51 (Custom) Mumbai Indians
vs Kolkata Knight Riders
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Wankhede Stadium,
Mumbai.
Match 52
Friday,
15th May 2015
 Match 52 (Custom) Sunrisers Hyderabad
vs Royal Challengers Bangalore
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium,
Hyderabad.
Match 53
Saturday,
16th May 2015
 Match 53 (Custom) Kings XI Punjab
vs Chennai Super Kings
4:00 pm IST (10:30 GMT)
Punjab Cricket Association Stadium,
Mohali.
Match 54
Saturday,
16th May 2015
 Match 54 (Custom) Rajasthan Royals
vs Kolkata Knight Riders
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Brabourne Stadium, Mumbai
Match 55
Sunday,
17th May 2015
 Match 55 (Custom) Royal Challengers Bangalore vs Delhi Daredevils
4:00 pm IST (10:30 GMT)
Chinnaswamy Stadium,
Bengaluru.
Match 56
Sunday,
17th May 2015
 Match 56 (Custom) Sunrisers Hyderabad
vs Mumbai Indians
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium,
Hyderabad.
Match 57
Tuesday,
19th May 2015
 TBD vs TBD (Custom) Qualifier 1
First Placed Team
vs Second Placed Team
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
TBC, TBC
Match 58
Wednesday,
20th May 2015
 TBD vs TBD (Custom) Eliminator
Third Placed Team
vs
 Fourth Placed Team
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
TBC, TBC
Match 59
Friday,
22nd May 2015
 TBD vs TBD (Custom) Qualifier 2
Winner of Eliminator
vs Looseers of  Qualifier 1
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
TBC, TBC
Match 60
Sunday,
24th May 2015
 TBD vs TBD (Custom) Final
Winner of Qualifier 1
vs Winner of Qualifier 2
8:00 pm IST (14:30 GMT)
Eden Gardens,
Kolkata

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