Some Facts About Daylight-Saving Time (DST)


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Myself . By T.V. Antony Raj

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DST Countries Map

Daylight Saving Time Countries as of October 2011.

Daylight Saving Time often known as “Summer Time”, “DST” or “Daylight Savings Time” helps to make better use of daylight in the evenings during certain periods of the year.

The clock moves ahead losing one hour in the spring when DST starts, and it falls back one hour gaining an hour when DST ends in the Fall. The transition from Standard Time (ST) to Daylight Saving Time (DST) has the effect of moving one hour of daylight from morning to the evening and the transition from DST to ST effectively moves one hour of daylight from the evening to the morning.

This year on Sunday, March 11 at 2 am, the Eastern Time Zone officially switched from standard time to DST, giving us a later sunrise and sunset. After being in effect for 238 days, or about 65% of the year DST ended today at 2 am.

From yesterday, the time difference between New Delhi, India and Washington DC, USA is -19:30 hours instead of -9:30 hours.

Here are some facts about Daylight Saving Time:

In his article “Daylight saving in ancient Rome,” that appeared in The Classical Journal 13 (6): 450–451, B.L. Ullman (1918-03) wrote about the common practice of saving daylight in the ancient world.

Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin

In 1784, Benjamin Franklin the American inventor, statesman, and publisher resurrected this idea. During his time as an American envoy to France, on April 26, 1784 Journal de Paris published in its “Économie” section an anonymous light-hearted satire titled “Aux auteurs du Journal” in French translated from the English original. In this satire, Franklin suggested that Parisians could economize on candles by rising earlier than they used to and use morning sunlight. He also proposed taxing shutters, rationing candles, waking the public by ringing church bells, and firing cannons at sunrise.

Franklin wrote under the pseudonyms of “Poor Richard” and “Richard Saunders”. He achieved success publishing a yearly almanac named “Poor Richard’s Almanack”. Being the best-selling pamphlet published in the American colonies, yearly print runs of the almanac reached 10,000. He published this almanac continually from 1732 to 1758. In this almanac, Franklin’s facetiously suggested that people should get up earlier in the summer to take advantage of more sunlight. The axiom “Early to bed, and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise” has been attributed to him.

George Vernon Hudson

George Vernon Hudson

In 1895, George Vernon Hudson, a New Zealand entomologist, mooted the idea of modern daylight saving time (DST).

William Willett by Elliott & Fry

William Willett

On an early summer morning in 1907, William Willett, an Englishman, after riding his horse in Petts Wood, near his home noticed many blinds still down, and the idea for daylight saving time occurred to him.

William Willet published a pamphlet “The Waste of Daylight” using his own financial resources. He proposed that the clocks should be advanced by 80 minutes in four incremental steps during April and reversed the same way during September. The evenings would then remain light for longer increasing daylight recreation time, and this could save ₤2.5 million in lighting costs. He suggested that the clocks should be advanced by 20 minutes at a time, at 2 am on successive Sundays in April, and be retarded by the same amount on Sundays in September.

In 1908, the fate of Willett’s proposal involved several political issues in Britain. His idea captivated many persons in high office, including Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour, David Lloyd George, James Ramsay MacDonald, King Edward VII (who used half-hour DST at Sandringham), budding politician Winston Spencer Churchill, the managing director of Harrods, and the manager of the National Bank.

Even so, the opposition to Willett’s proposal was  stronger. It included Prime Minister Herbert Henry Asquith, Sir William Christie (the Astronomer Royal), Sir George Howard Darwin, Sir William Napier Shaw (director of the Meteorological Office), many agricultural organizations, and theater owners.

In 1909, after many hearings by a Parliamentary select committee on Willett’s proposal nothing came out of it.

In the same year, Andrew Peters introduced a DST bill to the US House of Representatives. However, the skeptical US politicians killed it in committee.

Every year from 1911 through 1914, Willett’s allies introduced similar bills to the British Parliament, to no avail.

The outbreak of the First World War made the issue of daylight saving more important because of the need to save coal. By 1916, Germany and its allies enforced daylight saving time calling it Sommerzeit.

Finally, after Britain passed the bill on May 17, 1916 it advanced the clocks by an hour on the following Sunday, 21st May. Subsequently, other European countries adopted daylight saving. Russia waited until 1917.

Sir Winston Churchill in his article “A silent toast to William Willett” in the Pictorial Weekly dated April 28, 1934 argued that daylight saving enlarges “the opportunities for the pursuit of health and happiness among the millions of people who live in this country.”

The term “summer time” replaced daylight saving time in draft legislation in Britain. Continental Europe uses similar phrases, like Sommerzeit in Germany, zomertijd in Dutch, horario de verano or hora de verano in Spain and l’heure d’été in France. In Italy, the term became ora legale, that is, legal time (legally enforced time) as opposed to ora solare, solar time, in Winter.

The United States adopted daylight saving time in 1918. Two states, Arizona and Hawaii do not observe daylight saving time. In 2005, President Bush signed the Energy Policy Act, extending daylight saving time by four weeks.

Many countries near or south of the equator do not observe DST. Kazakhstan dropped DST in 2005 citing negative health effects.

A few studies link an increase in heart attacks when DST goes into effect, and a decrease when it ends.

Still people debate whether DST actually saves energy.

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Fall Back from DST


As I opened my laptop this morning, I remembered I had to fall back on time today. I clicked the clock icon at the bottom of the screen, and the clock applet showed this message: “Daylight saving time ended Sunday, November 04, 2012 at 2:00 AM. The clock went back 1 hour at that time.”

I googled “daylight saving time” and the first item I saw on the screen was:

Daylight Saving Time (United States) began Sunday, March 11, 2012, 2:00am, and ended Sunday, November 4, 2012, 2:00am. Except Arizona and Hawaii. Move your clocks ahead 1 hour in spring and back 1 hour in fall (“Spring forward, fall back”).

The clock moves ahead losing one hour in the spring when DST starts, and it falls back one hour gaining an hour when DST ends in the Fall. This year on Sunday, March 11 at 2 a.m., the Eastern Time Zone officially switched from standard time to DST, giving us a later sunrise and sunset. After being in effect for 238 days, or about 65% of the year DST ended today at 2 a.m.

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Day 13: Alex Paul Menon, District Collector of Sukma, Chhattisgarh has been released from captivity.


At last a heartening news: Alex Paul Menon, the District Collector of Sukma, Chhattisgarh abducted on April 21, by Maoist insurgents has been released from captivity today (Thursday, May 3, 2012).

“I am tired, shattered. I want to go home to my family first. I would just like to rest … I am fine. I will speak after a day…” said Alex Menon.

For further news please click on the links under Related Articles.

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SOUTH ASIA INTELLIGENCE REVIEW


tvaraj:

Even as the hostage crisis winds down, with the release of the Sukma DC currently under negotiation, urgent questions persist regarding the conduct of the state during these crises and, more broadly, the fundamentals of ‘negotiating with terrorists’ or with ‘hostage takers’. There has been much commentary on the state’s ‘capitulation’ and the obvious and adverse consequences, both of releasing active Maoists from jail, and of the ‘demonstration effect’ which will ‘naturally’ encourage future abductions, given the success of the present instances.

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Originally posted on Arcana Intellego:

Weekly Assessments & Briefings
Volume 10, No. 43, April 30, 2012

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Data and assessments from SAIR can be freely published in any form with credit to the South Asia Intelligence Review of the
South Asia Terrorism Portal

ASSESSMENT

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INDIA

 

The Hostage State
Ajai Sahni
Editor, SAIR; Executive Director, Institute for Conflict Management & SATP

A rolling crisis of high profile abductions, initiated with the kidnapping of two irresponsible Italians in Odisha on March 14, 2012, continues to hold the national attention, with Alex Paul Menon, the District Collector (DC) of the newly formed Sukma District in Chhattisgarh, still in the custody of the Maoist’s Dandakaranya Special Zonal Committee (DKSZC), since his abduction on April 21, 2012. Significantly, even as the Menon abduction is discussed threadbare, little mention is made of the two policemen guarding him, who were murdered in cold blood by the Maoists. In the…

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Day 10 Evening: Abduction of Alex Paul Menon, District Collector of Sukma, Chhattisgarh.


‘B’ indicates the village of Samathanapuram on the map.

When travelling from Tirunelveli to Nagercoil on State Highway 177, about 1.7 km from the town of Panagudi, there is a small village called Samathanapuram. This is the native village of the 32 year old Alex Paul Menon who was appointed as the First Collector of the newly formed Sukma District which was created by carving out the Maoist-infested Dantewada, in the South Bastar Region of the mineral-rich state of Chhattisgarh.

Alex Paul Menon, Collector of Sukma District, Chhattisgarh.

On Saturday April 21, at about 4:30 pm, cadres of the banned Communist Party of India (Maoist) abducted Alex Paul Menon. He is being held as a hostage by the insurgents who are demanding the release of 17 jailed cadres, and a halt to “Operation Green Hunt” – the anti-Maoist drive.

The Maoists rebels named B.D. Sharma, former IAS (Indian Administrative Service) officer and Professor G. Hargopal of Hyderabad as mediators acceptable to them to negotiate the release of Alex Paul Menon.

The Chhattisgarh government, in turn, has named Suyogya Kumar Mishra, former Chief Secretary of Chhattisgarh, and Nirmala Buch, former Union Secretary and Chief Secretary of Madhya Pradesh as the government representatives.

Mr. B.D. Sharma, and Professor G. Hargopal  met the rebels on Saturday, April 28, in the Tadmetla forest.

They returned on Sunday, April 29, morning from the forest area with a reply from the Maoists, but refused to divulge what transpired during their meeting. The two mediators said: “Collector Menon is safe, we will share our discussion with Maoists only with the government-mediators in Raipur.”

Raman Singh Chief Minister of Chattisgarh

Raman Singh Chief Minister of Chattisgarh (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Finally the form of an agreement between the two mediators named by the Maoists and the mediators of the Chhattisgarh government, at their fourth round of talks, was reached today (Monday April, 30) evening. A two-page agreement was initialed by the mediators in the presence of Principal Secretary (Home) N.K. Aswal. Chief Minister Raman Singh told reporters: “I hope Alex Paul Menon will be released within 48 hours.”

To read the breakthrough to ensure the safe return of the 32-year-old collector click on these two links:

  1. Maoists agree to release Sukma collector Alex Paul Menon.
  2. Sukma Collector Alex Paul Menon to be released in 48 hours: Maoists’ mediators.
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Day 10: Abduction of Alex Paul Menon, District Collector of Sukma, Chhattisgarh.


Alex Paul Menon, Collector of Sukma District, Chhattisgarh.

The Maoist rebels who abducted Alex Paul Menon, the District Collector of Sukma, Chhattisgarh on April 21, did not allow the two mediators selected by them – B.D. Sharma, former IAS (Indian Administrative Service) officer and Professor G. Hargopal of Hyderabad – to meet him.

The two mediators met the rebels on Saturday (yesterday) in the Tadmetla forest. They stayed overnight and briefed the Maoists on their talks with the government elected mediators, Mr. S.K. Mishra, former chief secretary of Chhattisgarh and Ms. Nirmala Buch, former Madhya Pradesh chief secretary.

They returned yesterday (Sunday) morning from the forest area with a reply from the Maoists, but refused to divulge what transpired during their meeting. The two mediators said: “Collector Menon is safe, we will share our discussion with Maoists only with the government-mediators in Raipur.”

“As someone who has served in the Tamil Nadu cadre of the Indian Administrative Service, I feel worse than miserable reading and hearing of Collector Alex Paul Menon’s ordeal. But unlike Alex, who has put his life on the line, I have never had to face personal or physical danger in the course of official duty,” said Gopalkrishna Gandhi.

To read the full text of the statment of Gopalkrishna Gandhi click this link –> “Alex’s bravery is an example to cherish and follow

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Day 9: Abduction of Alex Paul Menon, District Collector of Sukma, Chhattisgarh.


Alex Paul Menon, Collector of Sukma District, Chhattisgarh.

On April 21, Maoists rebels disguised as villagers took Alex Paul Menon, the District Collector of Sukma, Chhattisgarh as hostage at gunpoint from a forested location in Sukma district, some 500 km south of Raipur. When the Collector’s two security guards resisted his abduction, the Maoists shot them dead.

According to Official sources the Maoists have in the meantime upped their demand. They now want the release of 17 jailed cadres, instead of the eight named by them earlier, and a halt to “Operation Green Hunt” – the anti-Maoist drive.

Official sources said the Chhattisgarh government, desperate to ensure the safe release of Alex PaulMenon, has positively responded to the wo demands placed by Maoists.

The two mediators – B.D. Sharma, former IAS (Indian Administrative Service) officer and Professor G. Hargopal of Hyderabad met the rebels on Saturday (yesterday) with a message from the Chhattisgarh government. Today (Sunday) morning they came out from the rebels infested area with a reply from the Maoists.

However, the two mediators refused to divulge any details of the Maoists’ reply. They said: “Collector Menon is safe, we will share our discussion with Maoists only with the government-mediators in Raipur.”

Earlier, before visiting the Maoist hideout, Mr. Sharma and Prof. Hargopal had several rounds of closed-door meetings at Raipur’s state guest house with Mr. S.K. Mishra, former chief secretary of Chhattisgarh and Ms. Nirmala Buch, former Madhya Pradesh chief secretary – the two mediators appointed by the government.

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Day 8: Abduction of Alex Paul Menon, District Collector of Sukma, Chhattisgarh.


Alex Paul Menon, Collector of Sukma District, Chhattisgarh.

BHOPAL: Even as the second round of talks between interlocutors was set to begin at Raipur, outlawed Communist Party of India (Maoist) circulated a three page note early on Friday morning, listing in detail their perception about the problems being faced by the tribals and incidents of alleged atrocities by the security forces in tribal Bastar region of Chhattisgarh.

A three page note “why we detained the collector”, issued by CPI (Maoist) South Bastar regional committee secretary Ganesh Uike said they were forced to issue such a statement to set the record straight after a group of so-called intellectuals, supported by vested interests, unleashed a propaganda to whip up sympathy in favour of the Sukma collector.

To read the full article please click this link –> Maoists justify abduction of Chhattisgarh collector Alex Paul Menon

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Day 7: Abduction of Alex Paul Menon, District Collector of Sukma, Chhattisgarh.


Alex Paul Menon, Collector of Sukma District, Chhattisgarh.

Alex Paul Menon, District Collector of Sukma, Chhattisgarh, abducted by the Maoist on 21 rebels is an asthma patient, and the abductors informed the Chhattisgarh government that their hostage was critically ill.

Medicines delivered

The Maoist insurgents wanted Mr. Manish Kunjam, a Communist Party of India leader and President of All India Adivasi Mahasabha, and a former MLA from Konta district as one of the mediators acceptable to them to negotiate the release of Alex Paul Menon who was held hostage by them.

But Manish Kunjam was reluctant to act as a mediator.

“Some reporters had suggested that I should take medicines for Menon after I declined to mediate on behalf of the Maoists. The chief minister of Chhattisgarh also asked me if I could go with the medicines. It was important as the Maoists had said in a statement that he was critical,” said Kunjam.

Kunjam said he rode about 150-175 km on a motorcycle to the jungles and back to deliver the medicines. The Maoists met him beyond Tadmetla village.

When reporters questioned him these were some of his replies:

“He got the medicines on Wednesday afternoon.”

“I did what I was asked to do — I went and gave the medicines.”

“I could not meet Mr Menon. I delivered the medicines to the Naxal leaders, who said the district magistrate is fine. I have accomplished the task assigned to me by the Chhattisgarh government “

“I was there to deliver medicines for Menon, not to act as a messenger. Also I have been kept out of the dialogue process and hence cannot comment on this matter.”

“The Chhattisgarh government has also taken some positive steps. I hope he will be freed soon.”

After delivering the medicine, Manish Kunjam went to his his native village Ramaram.

Negotiations under way

On April 22 the Maoists sent an anonymous taped message to media outlets in the state. The message asked the Chhattisgarh government to free eight key leaders: Marakam Gopannam, Nirmal Akka, Devpal Chandra Shekher Reddy, Shanti Priya Reddy, Meena Chowdhary, Korasa Sunny, Markan Sunny and Asit Kumar Sen who are in jail now.

To negotiate the release of of Alex Paul Menon the Maoists named the following three as acceptable to them:

    • Manish Kunjam,a Communist Party of India leader and President of All India Adivasi Mahasabha, and a former MLA from Konta district.
    • Prashant Bhushan, a noted Supreme Court lawyer and a core committee member of Team Anna.
    • B.D. Sharma, former commissioner for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, one of India’s foremost experts on tribal issues and a former Collector of undivided Bastar.

The Chhattisgarh government, in turn named the following two as the government representatives:

    • Suyogya Kumar Mishra, former Chief Secretary of Chhattisgarh
    • Nirmala Buch, former Union Secretary and Chief Secretary of Madhya Pradesh

Out of the three named by the Moists only B.D. Sharma agreed to get involved in the mediation. The Maoists then proposed the name of Professor G. Hargopal, based in Hyderabad as another mediator they were willing to talk to.

The first round of talks between the Maoists and the four negotiators – the two mediators named by Maoists and two former bureaucrats appointed by the Chhattisgarh government, for the release of Alex Paul Menon was held on Thursday.

During the meeting, the two sides discussed all aspects related to the Maoists’ two demands:

    • the release of eight jailed rebels
    • a freeze on “Operation Green Hunt” against them.

Official sources said the closed door meeting on Thursday held at the government guest house went on for more than three hours and the talks are proceeding in a positive direction.

“It was a very constructive and positive talk,” Nirmala Buch told reporters on Thursday.

The second round of talks of talks began at 9 am on Friday.

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Day 6: Abduction of Alex Paul Menon, District Collector of Sukma, Chhattisgarh.


Alex Paul Menon, Collector of Sukma District, Chhattisgarh.

Alex Paul Menon, District Collector of Sukma, Chhattisgarh and his entourage were ambushed by Maoist insurgents disguised as villagers when they were returning to their bas after attending the Gram Suraj Abhiyaan – a state government-run programme meant to promote greater coordination and connect between the villagers and administration. The rebels killed two security personnel of the Collector and took him as hostage.

The Collector, is an asthma patient, and the abductors informed the Chhattisgarh government that their hostage was critically ill.

Their statement said, “It’s our appeal to Mrs Asha Paul Menon, his friends, family and IAS officers that Mr Alex Paul Menon’s health is very critical. It’s our request to please send his medicines from the mediators. The delay being caused by the officials is responsible for his bad health and if something happens, it will be the government’s responsibility,” (sic)

On Sunday, the day after the Maoists demanded the release of eight of their leaders jailed in Chhattisgarh and a halt to “Operation Green Hunt” in exchange for freeing Alex Paul Menon. They set the deadlinefor the government to meet their demands to 5 pm yesterday.

Tension prevails in Chhattisgarh, and government officials are in a quandary since the deadline set by the Maoists has expired. The government has not received any communication from the abductors about the fate of the young official who hails from Tirunelveli District of Tamilnadu.

Reports say that the staff in Chief Minister Raman Singh’s office was constantly interacting with officials in the district for updates about a possible extension to the deadline by the rebels.

Hours after the statement was released, Mr Kunjam was rushed by the state government with urgent medicines for Mr Menon. Mr Kunjam delivered the medicines today to Mr Menon. Mr Kunjam is one of the three mediators named by the Maoists, who they would be willing to negotiate through. Prashant Bhushan, another mediator named by the Maoists, has however refused to take part in the negotiation process.

Yesterday, Manish Kunjam, a Communist Party of India leader and President of All India Adivasi Mahasabha, and a former MLA from Konta district, one of the three mediators named by the Maoists collected the medicines from Menon’s wife and delivered it to the critically ill Collector.

Prashant Bhushan, a noted Supreme Court lawyer and a core committee member of Team Anna, the second person named by the Maoists as a mediator refused to accept the theirproposal saying that the Collector should be released unconditionally.

After Prashant Bhushan and Manish Kunjam refused the offer to act as mediators, yesterday, in a message sent to media houses, the Maoists proposed the name of Professor G. Hargopal, based in Hyderabad as another mediator they were willing to talk to .

“I have participated earlier in two hostage crises. I believe that it should happen without any loss of life. I am thinking about going with B D Sharma. We will have to see both the government’s and the Maoists’ point of views. Why the poor tribals are fighting today. This is not just about the abduction; we will have to work to stop this. The government will have to accept the rights of the tribals,” Professor Hargopal said yesterday.

Professor Haragopal is said to be the man who played a crucial role in February 2011 in the release of Malkangiri district collector R. Vineel Krishna held hostage by the Maoists in neighboring Orissa.

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